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Research Papers

Porous Media Modeling of Two-Phase Microchannel Cooling of Electronic Chips With Nonuniform Power Distribution

[+] Author and Article Information
Jun Jie Liu

China Petroleum & Chemical Co.,
Beijing, China

Hua Zhang, S. C. Yao

Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Yubai Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
State College, PA 16801

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received November 16, 2013; final manuscript received April 8, 2014; published online April 29, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gongnan Xie.

J. Electron. Packag 136(2), 021008 (Apr 29, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1129; doi: 10.1115/1.4027420 History: Received November 16, 2013; Revised April 08, 2014

Compared to single-phase heat transfer, two-phase microchannel heat sinks utilize latent heat to reduce the needed flow rate and to maintain a rather uniform temperature close to the boiling temperature. The challenge in the application of cooling for electronic chips is the necessity of modeling a large number of microchannels using large number of meshes and extensive computation time. In the present study, a modified porous media method modeling of two-phase flow in microchannels is performed. Compared with conjugate method, which considers individual channels and walls, it saves computation effort and provides a more convenient means to perform optimization of channel geometry. The porous media simulation is applied to a real chip. The channels of high heat load will have higher qualities, larger flow resistances, and lower flow rates. At a constant available pressure drop over the channels, the low heat load channels show much higher mass flow rates than needed. To avoid this flow maldistribution, the channel widths on a chip are adjusted to ensure that the exit qualities and mass flow rate of channels are more uniform. As a result, the total flow rate on the chip is drastically reduced, and the temperature gradient is also minimized. However, it only gives a relatively small reduction on the maximum surface temperature of chip.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The heat flux map on the top surface of the full chip

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Fig. 2

Model the microchannels as the fluid-saturated porous media: (a) microchannel geometry, and (b) schematic of porous media modeling

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Fig. 3

Model the single microchannel with severely variable heat flux on top of the solid substrate: (a) microchannel geometry and (b) schematic of porous media modeling

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Fig. 4

Effect of iteration on the result of surface temperature

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Fig. 5

Surface temperature distribution of strip 2 for reverse flow

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Fig. 6

Surface temperature distribution along the single channel for the porous media model and conjugate model

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Fig. 7

(a) Top surface temperature distribution; (b) vapor quality distribution; and (c) mass flow rate distribution

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Fig. 8

Maximum surface temperature and vapor quality for various channel width (uniform heat flux)

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Fig. 9

Maximum surface temperature and vapor quality for various channel width (nonuniform heat flux)

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Fig. 10

In each set, the upper one is uniform channel case and the lower one is optimized nonuniform channel case: (a) surface temperature distribution; (b) vapor quality; and (c) mass flow rate

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