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Research Papers

Variable Fin Density Flow Channels for Effective Cooling and Mitigation of Temperature Nonuniformity in Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Lorenzini-Gutierrez

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: ld.lorenzinigutierrez@ugto.mx

Satish G. Kandlikar

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: sgkeme@rit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received July 30, 2013; final manuscript received February 25, 2014; published online April 29, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gongnan Xie.

J. Electron. Packag 136(2), 021007 (Apr 29, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1082; doi: 10.1115/1.4027091 History: Received July 30, 2013; Revised February 25, 2014

The surface temperature of integrated circuit (IC) chips cooled with a single-phase liquid flow increases along the flow direction following the increase in the liquid temperature. Increasing the heat transfer coefficient along the flow direction is an effective way to enhance the cooling performance while mitigating the temperature nonuniformity and high pressure drop concerns. This investigation evaluates numerically the cooling performance of different flow channel designs suitable in 3D IC applications with channel heights restricted to 100 μm. Internal configurations featuring offset strip fins with variable fin density and variable spacing ribs were studied in an effort to minimize the temperature nonuniformity while maintaining a relatively low pressure drop. The performance of 13 different designs for the variable-fin-density configuration and three different rib configurations have been evaluated and compared with two baseline cases, corresponding to a smooth flow channel and a flow channel with continuous fins. All of the analyzed internal configurations are contained within a flow channel of 100 μm height and 910 μm width. A coolant chip formed by nine flow channels for the dissipation of 200 W of a 3D IC with a surface area of 1 cm2 is the base for this investigation. The best performing configuration resulted in a temperature variation of less than 30 K with a pressure drop of 34 kPa as compared to a temperature variation of 38 K and a pressure drop of 144 kPa with continuous fins and 51 K and 21 kPa for a smooth flow channel.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view to scale of the coolant layer for a 3D IC area of 10 mm × 10 mm heated at both bottom and top surfaces

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Fig. 2

Schematics of the different internal configurations analyzed: (a) smooth channel, (b) continuous-fins channel, (c) cross-ribs channel, and (d) variable-fin-density channel. Not to scale—for illustrative purposes only.

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Fig. 3

Different internal configurations (to scale) analyzed for the variable-fin-density channel. Dimensions are in millimeters.

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Fig. 4

Variation of the surface temperature along the flow direction for the baseline and cross-ribs configurations operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 5

Variation of the pressure drop along the flow direction for the baseline and cross-ribs configurations operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 6

Variation of the surface temperature along the flow direction for the baseline, variable-fin-density (VFD-A to VFD-G) and CR-25 configurations operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 7

Variation of the pressure drop along the flow direction for the baseline, variable-fin-density (VFD-A to VFD-G) and CR-25 configurations operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 8

Variation of the surface temperature along the flow direction for the baseline and variable-fin-density configurations (VFD-H to VFD-M) operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 9

Variation of the pressure drop along the flow direction for the baseline and variable-fin-density configurations (VFD-H to VFD-M) operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 10

Temperature contours (K) on the heat sink surface for all the analyzed configurations operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 11

Streamlines over a velocity magnitude contour (m/s) for the VFD-K configuration operating with a flow rate of 145.53 ml/min. Image scaled by a factor of 0.5 in the z direction for illustrative purposes.

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Fig. 12

Variation of the surface temperature along the flow direction for the baseline and the best-performing configurations operating with a flow rate of 291.06 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 13

Variation of the pressure drop along the flow direction for the baseline and the best-performing configurations operating with a flow rate of 291.06 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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Fig. 14

Temperature contours (K) on the heat sink surface for the baseline and the best-performing configurations operating with a flow rate of 291.06 ml/min and 200 W dissipation

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