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Research Papers

An Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Non-Newtonian Fluid in a Rectangular Channel With Dimples/Protrusions

[+] Author and Article Information
Di Zhang, Lu Zheng

Key Laboratory of Thermal Fluid
Science and Engineering,
Ministry of Education, School of Energy and
Power Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Gongnan Xie

Engineering Simulation and
Aerospace Computing (ESAC),
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern Polytechnical University,
P.O. Box 552,
Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710072, China
e-mail: xgn@uwpu.edu.cn

Yonghui Xie

Professor
School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China
e-mail: yhxie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received July 29, 2013; final manuscript received October 10, 2013; published online April 29, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gary Miller.

J. Electron. Packag 136(2), 021005 (Apr 29, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1079; doi: 10.1115/1.4025713 History: Received July 29, 2013; Revised October 10, 2013

Dimple and protrusion play important roles in the heat transfer enhancement and flow characteristic in cooling channels, which widely employed within electronic cooling systems. Non-Newtonian fluid has significant differences with Newtonian fluid, such as water, in fluid characteristic. In this study, an experiment on the viscosity of three different kinds of non-Newtonian fluids, i.e., xanthan gum solution, Carbopol 934 solution, polyacrylamide solution, was first accomplished to acquire the viscosity with different mass fractions. Then, experimental measurements on heat transfer and friction characteristics of non-Newtonian fluid in a rectangular channel with dimples and protrusions were conducted. The overall Nusselt numbers (Nu) and Fanning friction factors at different dimple/protrusion structures were obtained with various inlet flow rates and mass fractions. The results show that only xanthan gum solution has the significant shear thinning effect within the concentration range of this study, and the dimples/protrusions both have great effect on the heat transfer enhancement in the rectangular channel, and that the heat transfer of the case with the protrusions and crossing arrangement can be further enhanced with the higher Nu when compared to the case with the dimples and aligned arrangement. Moreover, an increase in Nu with the higher non-Newtonian fluid mass fraction is observed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Change of the dynamic viscosity with shear rate of xanthan gum solution at two ranges of mass fraction: (a) from 0.04% to 0.1% and (b) from 0.2% to 0.5%

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Fig. 2

Change of the dynamic viscosity with shear rate: (a) Carbopol 934, (b) polyacrylamide solution, and (c) water

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Fig. 3

Fitted μ–γ curves of three selected solution of xanthan gum solution: (a) 0.1%, (b) 0.2%, and (c) 0.3%

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Fig. 4

Schematic sketch of an experiment system for flow and heat transfer tests

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Fig. 5

Two arrangements and cross sections of the dimple and protrusions. All dimensions are given in millimeters.

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Fig. 6

Photograph of the practical experiment system

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Fig. 7

Variations of Nu with flow velocity at different mass fractions: (a) ω = 0% and (b) ω = 0.1%; (c) ω = 0.2%, and (d) ω = 0.3%

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Fig. 8

Nu's subjected to flow velocity of different channel structures: (a) aligned-protrusion and (b) crossing-protrusion; (c) crossing-dimple, and (d) smooth channel

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Fig. 9

Variations of friction factor with flow velocity at different mass fractions: (a) ω = 0% and (b) ω = 0.1%; (c) ω = 0.2%, and (d) ω = 0.3%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Friction factors subjected to flow velocity of different channel structures: (a) aligned-protrusion and (b) crossing-protrusion; (c) crossing-dimple and (d) smooth channel

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