Research Papers

Hygrothermal Behavior of Advanced Polymers Above Water Boiling Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Changsoo Jang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742

Bongtae Han

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: bthan@umd.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received August 18, 2013; final manuscript received January 24, 2014; published online February 18, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Shidong Li.

J. Electron. Packag 136(1), 011013 (Feb 18, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4026626 History: Received August 18, 2013; Revised January 24, 2014

Hygroscopic and thermal expansion behavior of advanced polymers is investigated when subjected to combined high temperature and moisture conditions. An enhanced experimental–numerical hybrid procedure is proposed to overcome the limitations of the existing methods when used at temperatures above the water boiling temperature. The proposed procedure is implemented to measure the hygrothermal strains of three epoxy molding compounds and a no-filler underfill over a wide range of temperatures including temperatures beyond the water boiling temperature. The effects of moisture content on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) are evaluated from the measurement data. A formulation to predict the Tg change as a function of moisture content is also presented.

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Fig. 1

Illustration of strain curves obtained at each step

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Fig. 2

Moisture weight loss of EMC A at various ramp rates

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Fig. 3

Moisture weight loss in step 4 at the ramp rate of 30 °C/min

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Fig. 4

Strain evolutions of EMC A: (a) TMA result of dry specimen (step 2), (b) TMA results of wet specimen before and after compensation (steps 4 and 5), and (c) final hygrothermal strain (step 6)

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Fig. 5

DIC result of EMC A used in hygroscopic strain measurement (step 3)

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Fig. 6

Strain evolutions of (a) EMC B, (b) EMC C, and (c) no-filler underfill

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Fig. 7

CTE (a) below Tg and (b) above Tg of test materials as a function of moisture content

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Fig. 8

Tg as a function of moisture content (symbols: experimental data, lines: predictions)




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