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Research Papers

Room Level Modeling of Air Flow in a Contained Data Center Aisle

[+] Author and Article Information
Vaibhav K. Arghode

Post Doctoral Fellow
George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: vaibhav.arghode@me.gatech.edu

Yogendra Joshi

George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received August 14, 2013; final manuscript received January 6, 2014; published online February 14, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Amy Fleischer.

J. Electron. Packag 136(1), 011011 (Feb 14, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1087; doi: 10.1115/1.4026540 History: Received August 14, 2013; Revised January 06, 2014

Cold aisle containment is used in air cooled data centers to minimize direct mixing between cold and hot air. Here, we present room level air flow field investigation for open, partially and fully contained cold aisles. Our previous investigation for rack level modeling has shown that consideration of momentum rise above the tile surface, due to acceleration of air through the pores, significantly improves the predictive capability as compared to the generally used porous jump model. The porous jump model only specifies a step pressure loss at the tile surface without any influence on the flow field. The momentum rise could be included by either directly resolving the tile's pore structure or by artificially specifying a momentum source above the tile surface. In the present work, a modified body force model is used to artificially specify the momentum rise above the tile surface. The modified body force model was validated against the experimental data as well as with the model resolving the tile pore geometry at the rack level and then implemented at the room level. With the modified body force model, much higher hot air entrainment and higher server inlet temperatures were predicted as compared to the porous jump model. Even when the rack air flow requirement is matched with the tile air flow supply, considerable hot air recirculation is predicted. With partial containment, where only a curtain at the top of the cold aisle is deployed and side doors are opened, improved cold air delivery is suggested.

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References

Joshi, Y., and Kumar, P., 2012, Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers, Springer, New York.
Schmidt, R., Vallury, A., and Iyengar, M., 2011, “Energy Savings Through Hot and Cold Aisle Containment Configurations for Air Cooled Servers in Data Centers,” Pacific Rim Technical Conference and Exposition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Systems (InterPACK), Portland, OR, July 6–8, ASME Paper No. IPACK2011-52206. [CrossRef]
Shrivastava, S. K., Calder, A. R., and Ibrahim, M., 2012, “Quantitative Comparison of Air Containment Systems,” 13th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), San Diego, CA, May 30–June 1, pp. 68–77. [CrossRef]
Takahashi, M., Uekusa, T., Kishita, M., and Kaneko, H., 2008, “Aisle-Capping Method for Airflow Design in Data Centers,” IEEE 30th International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC 2008), San Diego, CA, September 14–18. [CrossRef]
Gondipalli, S., Sammakia, B., Bhopte, S., Schmidt, R., Iyengar, M. K., and Murray, B., 2009, “Optimization of Cold Aisle Isolation Designs for a Data Center With Roofs and Doors Using Slits,” Pacific Rim Technical Conference and Exposition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Systems (InterPACK), San Francisco, CA, July 19–23, ASME Paper No. InterPACK2009-89203. [CrossRef]
Gondipalli, S., Bhopte, S., Sammakia, B., Iyengar, M. K., and Schmidt, R., 2008, “Effect of Isolating Cold Aisles on Rack Inlet Temperature,” 11th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITHERM 2008), Orlando, FL, May 28–31, pp. 1247–1254. [CrossRef]
Arghode, V. K., Kumar, P., Joshi, Y., Weiss, T., and Meyer, G., 2013, “Rack Level Modeling of Air Flow Through Perforated Tile in a Data Center,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 135(3), p. 030902. [CrossRef]
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Arghode, V. K., and Joshi, Y., 2013, “Modeling Strategies for Air Flow Through Perforated Tiles in a Data Center,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., 3(5), pp. 800–810 [CrossRef].
Kumar, P., and Joshi, Y., 2010, “Experimental Investigations on the Effect of Perforated Tile Air Jet Velocity on Server Air Distribution in a High Density Data Center,” 12th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Las Vegas, NV, June 2–5. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 5

(a) Data center layout, ((b)–(c)) rack modeling, and (d) modified body force term specification region

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Fig. 1

Comparison of PIV and CFD results for the under provisioned case

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Fig. 2

Comparison of PIV and CFD results for the fully provisioned case

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Fig. 3

Comparison of geometrical resolution, modified body force and porous jump model for middle racks in a contained aisle for the fully provisioned case in contained aisle condition

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Fig. 4

Computational domain representative of the Data Center Laboratory (DCL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology

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Fig. 6

Comparison of open and contained aisle for middle racks (4,11) with modified body force and porous jump models

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Fig. 7

Comparison of open and contained aisle for end tiles (1,14) with modified body force and porous jump models

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Fig. 8

Comparison temperature contours of (a) modified body force and (b) porous jump model along the center plane of open cold aisle for the under provisioned case

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Fig. 9

Comparison of (a) modified body force and (b) porous jump model along the center plane of partially contained cold aisle (only the top curtain deployed) and under provisioned case

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Fig. 10

Comparison temperature contours of modified body force and porous jump model along the center plane of open cold aisle for the fully provisioned case

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Fig. 11

Comparison of (a) modified body force and (b) porous jump model along the center plane of cold aisle for partially contained aisle for the fully provisioned case

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Fig. 12

Server inlet temperature for the under provisioned case

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Fig. 13

Server inlet temperature for the fully provisioned case

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