Research Papers

A Compact Modeling Approach to Enhance Collaborative Design of Thermal-Fluid Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Jason Stafford

Bell Labs,
Thermal Management Research Group,
Alcatel-Lucent, Dublin, Ireland
e-mail: jason.stafford@alcatel-lucent.com

David Newport, Ronan Grimes

Stokes Institute,
University of Limerick,
Limerick, Ireland

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received April 10, 2013; final manuscript received November 10, 2013; published online December 16, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Pradip Dutta.

J. Electron. Packag 136(1), 011004 (Dec 16, 2013) (13 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1026; doi: 10.1115/1.4026051 History: Received April 10, 2013; Revised November 10, 2013

This paper presents an approach for reducing detailed numerical models of electronic equipment into compact thermal-fluid models. These compact models have been created using network analogies representing mass, momentum and energy transport to reduce computational demand, preserve manufacturer intellectual property, and enable software independent exchange of information between supplier and integrator. A strategic approach is demonstrated for a steady state case from reduction to model integration within a global environment. The compact model is robust to boundary condition variation by developing a boundary condition response matrix for the network layout. A practical example of electronic equipment cooled naturally in air is presented. Solution times were reduced from ∼100 to ∼10−3 CPU hours when using the compact model. Nodal information was predicted with O(10%) accuracy compared to detailed solutions. For parametric design studies, the reduced model can provide 1800 solutions in the same time required to run a single detailed numerical simulation. The information generated by the reduction process also enhances collaborative design by providing the equipment integrator with ordered initial conditions for the equipment in the optimization of the global design. Sensitivity of the compact model to spatial variations on the boundary node faces has also been assessed. Overall, the compact modeling approach developed extends the use of compact models beyond preliminary design and into detailed phases of the product design lifecycle.

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Fig. 2

Optimization routine to minimize the difference between detailed and compact model solutions

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Fig. 1

(a) Multiscale and multilevel modeling within the typical design lifecycle (route 1) and proposed approach to detailed product design stages (route 2). Adapted from Ref. [2]. (b) Reduction strategy for the proposed compact modeling approach.

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Fig. 5

Simplification of exterior features on the detailed numerical model of equipment (for the application of boundary conditions)

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Fig. 6

Contrasting temperature distributions for two different boundary conditions in the defined set (Table 2)

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Fig. 7

The compact model layout for the current prototype

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Fig. 3

Integration of a compact model within a global modeling environment

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Fig. 4

Exterior (a) and interior (b) temperature distributions of a complex thermal-fluid system that is a naturally cooled enclosure containing electronic devices

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Fig. 8

Variation of a compact model conductance link over the range of boundary conditions

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Fig. 9

The contribution of boundary conditions to the variance of compact model conductances

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Fig. 10

Improvements to the boundary condition response matrix through the inclusion of additional reduction trials in Table 5

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Fig. 11

The boundary condition response matrix

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Fig. 14

Exterior surface temperature distributions predicted using (a) a full detailed model and (b) an integrated compact model of the electronic equipment

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Fig. 15

Temperature fields in an XY plane for (a) a full detailed model and (b) an integrated compact model of the electronic equipment

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Fig. 16

Temperature fields in an YZ plane for (a) a full detailed model and (b) an integrated compact model of the electronic equipment

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Fig. 12

The contribution of boundary conditions to the internal temperature distribution of the electronic equipment

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Fig. 13

A synthetic distribution applied to dominant external nodes




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