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Research Papers

Rack Level Modeling of Air Flow Through Perforated Tile in a Data Center

[+] Author and Article Information
Vaibhav K. Arghode

Post-Doctoral Fellow
George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: vaibhav.arghode@me.gatech.edu

Pramod Kumar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore, Kamataka 560012, India

Yogendra Joshi

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

Gary Meyer

Triad Floors, Inc.,
Denver, CO 80202

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Electronic Packaging. Manuscript received August 10, 2012; final manuscript received July 9, 2013; published online July 24, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Saurabh Shrivastava.

J. Electron. Packag 135(3), 030902 (Jul 24, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: EP-12-1076; doi: 10.1115/1.4024994 History: Received August 10, 2012; Revised July 09, 2013

Effective air flow distribution through perforated tiles is required to efficiently cool servers in a raised floor data center. We present detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air flow through a perforated tile and its entrance to the adjacent server rack. The realistic geometrical details of the perforated tile, as well as of the rack are included in the model. Generally, models for air flow through perforated tiles specify a step pressure loss across the tile surface, or porous jump model based on the tile porosity. An improvement to this includes a momentum source specification above the tile to simulate the acceleration of the air flow through the pores, or body force model. In both of these models, geometrical details of tile such as pore locations and shapes are not included. More details increase the grid size as well as the computational time. However, the grid refinement can be controlled to achieve balance between the accuracy and computational time. We compared the results from CFD using geometrical resolution with the porous jump and body force model solution as well as with the measured flow field using particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. We observe that including tile geometrical details gives better results as compared to elimination of tile geometrical details and specifying physical models across and above the tile surface. A modification to the body force model is also suggested and improved results were achieved.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) and (b) rack and (c) and (d) tile details under investigation

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Fig. 2

(a) Computational domain and (b)–(f) the modeled tile

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Fig. 3

Details of the computational domain and set-up

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Fig. 4

Pressure drop across the tile obtained by CFD with tile geometrical resolution

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Fig. 5

Comparison of PIV and CFD results for case 1 (rack flow = 1.224 m3/s, 2594 CFM, tile flow = 0 m3/s, 0 CFM, 0% of rack flow)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of PIV and CFD results for case 2 (rack flow = 1.224 m3/s, 2594 CFM, tile flow = 0.234 m3/s, 496 CFM, 20% of rack flow)

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Fig. 7

Comparison of PIV and CFD results for case 3 (rack flow = 1.224 m3/s, 2594 CFM, tile flow = 0.754 m3/s, 1598 CFM, 60% of rack flow)

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Fig. 8

Comparison of PIV and CFD results for case 4 (rack flow = 1.224 m3/s, 2594 CFM, tile flow = 1.224 m3/s, 2594 CFM, 100% of rack flow)

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