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Research Papers

Reliability Assessment and Activation Energy Study of Au and Pd-Coated Cu Wires Post High Temperature Aging in Nanoscale Semiconductor Packaging

[+] Author and Article Information
C. L. Gan

Spansion (Penang) Sdn Bhd.,
Phase II Free Industrial Zone,
11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia;
Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE),
Universiti Malaysia Perlis,
01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
e-mail: clgan_pgg@yahoo.com

U. Hashim

Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE),
Universiti Malaysia Perlis,
01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received October 15, 2012; final manuscript received February 24, 2013; published online April 12, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Shidong Li.

J. Electron. Packag 135(2), 021010 (Apr 12, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: EP-12-1099; doi: 10.1115/1.4024013 History: Received October 15, 2012; Revised February 24, 2013

Wearout reliability and high temperature storage life (HTSL) activation energy of Au and Pd-coated Cu (PdCu) ball bonds are useful technical information for Cu wire deployment in nanoscale semiconductor device packaging. This paper discusses the influence of wire type on the wearout reliability performance of Au and PdCu wire used in fine pitch BGA package after HTSL stress at various aging temperatures. Failure analysis has been conducted to identify the failure mechanism after HTSL wearout conditions for Au and PdCu ball bonds. Apparent activation energies (Eaa) of both wire types are investigated after HTSL test at 150 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C aging temperatures. Arrhenius plot has been plotted for each ball bond types and the calculated Eaa of PdCu ball bond is 0.85 eV and 1.10 eV for Au ball bond in 110 nm semiconductor device. Obviously Au ball bond is identified with faster IMC formation rate with IMC Kirkendall voiding while PdCu wire exhibits equivalent wearout and or better wearout reliability margin compare to conventional Au wirebond. Lognormal plots have been established and its mean to failure (t50) have been discussed in this paper.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Wirebond interconnection in FBGA 64 package

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Fig. 2

High temperature aging (150 °C, 175 °C, 200 °C) lognormal plots and its characteristics of PdCu used in 110 nm device FBGA 64 package

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Fig. 3

High temperature aging (150 °C, 175 °C, 200 °C) lognormal plots and its characteristics of Au used in 110 nm device FBGA 64 package

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Fig. 4

SEM images show thin AuAl IMC formation on as bonded stage of Au wirebond package prior to reliability stress

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Fig. 5

Typical Au ball bond IMC voiding and cracks post extended HTSL stress (1500 hr, 200 °C). Thicker AuAl IMC is formed with sign of Kirkendall microvoiding, microcracking beneath Au ball bond after long duration of HTSL test.

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Fig. 6

Proposed failure mechanism of AuAl Kirkendall micro voiding and caused lifted ball bond

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Fig. 7

SEM images show very thin CuAl IMC formation on as bonded stage of Cu wirebond package prior to reliability stress. No microcracking beneath PdCu ball bond.

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Fig. 8

Typical CuAl IMC microcracks post extended HTSL stress (1500 hr, 200 °C aging). Signs of micro cracking and micro voiding are observed.

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Fig. 9

Arrhenius plots of Au ball bond data against 1/kT aging time used in 110 nm semiconductor device

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Fig. 10

Arrhenius plots of PdCu ball bond data against 1/kT aging time used in 110 nm semiconductor device

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Fig. 11

Plots of ratio of wire pull strength to its initial value against aging time of various aging temperatures for (a) Au wire and (b) PdCu Wire

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Fig. 12

Plots of ratio of wire pull strength to its initial value against aging time of various aging temperatures for (a) Au wire and (b) PdCu Wire

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