Research Papers

Development of a Fused Deposition Modeling System for Low Melting Temperature Metal Alloys

[+] Author and Article Information
Jorge Mireles

W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79902
e-mail: jmireles3@miners.utep.edu

Ho-Chan Kim

Department of Mechanical and
Automotive Engineering,
Andong National University,
Andong, Geyongbuk,
760-759, South Korea
e-mail: hckim@andong.ac.kr

In Hwan Lee

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Chungbuk National University,
Cheongju, Chungbuk,
361-763, South Korea
e-mail: hl1anxoo@gmail.com

David Espalin

e-mail: despalin@miners.utep.edu

Francisco Medina

e-mail: frmedina@utep.edu

Eric MacDonald

e-mail: emac@utep.edu

Ryan Wicker

e-mail: rwicker@utep.edu
W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Electronic Packaging. Manuscript received February 28, 2012; final manuscript received June 22, 2012; published online February 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Kyoung-sik (Jack) Moon.

J. Electron. Packag 135(1), 011008 (Feb 26, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: EP-12-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4007160 History: Received February 28, 2012; Revised June 22, 2012

This research focused on extending the applications of fused deposition modeling (FDM) by extrusion and deposition of low melting temperature metal alloys to create three-dimensional metal structures and single-layer contacts which may prove useful for electronic interconnects. Six commercially available low melting temperature solder alloys (Bi36Pb32Sn31Ag1, Bi58Sn42, Sn63Pb37, Sn50Pb50, Sn60Bi40, Sn96.5Ag3.5) were tested for the creation of a fused deposition modeling for metals (FDMm) system with special attention given to Sn–Bi solders. An existing FDM 3000 was used and two alloys were successfully extruded through the system's extrusion head. Deposition was achieved through specific modifications to system toolpath commands and a comparison of solders with eutectic and non-eutectic compositions is discussed. The modifications demonstrate the ability to extrude simple single-layer solder lines with varying thicknesses, including sharp 90 deg angles and smooth curved lines and showing the possibility of using this system for printed circuit board applications in which various connections need to be processed. Deposition parameters altered for extrusion and the deposition results of low melting temperature metal alloys are introduced.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Chua, C. K., Leong, K. F., and Lim, C. S., 2003, Rapid Prototyping: Principles and Applications, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore.
Wohlers, T., 2005, “New Trends and Development in Additive Fabrication,” Virual Modeling and Rapid Manufacturing, P. J.Bartolo, ed., Taylor & Francis/Balkema, The Netherlands, pp. 3–5.
Espalin, D., Arcaute, K., Rodriguez, D., Medina, F., Posner, M., and Wicker, R., 2010, “Fused Deposition Modeling of Patient-Specific Polymethylmethacrylate Implants,” Rapid Prototyping J., 16(3), pp. 164–173. [CrossRef]
Kalita, S. J., Bose, S., Hosick, H. L., and Bandyopadhyay, A., 2003, “Development of Controlled Porosity Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds via Fused Deposition Modeling,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 23(5), pp. 611–620. [CrossRef]
Cao, T., Ho, K. H., and Teoh, S. H., 2003, “Scaffold Design and In Vitro Study of Osteochondralcocultrue in a Three-Dimensional Porous Polycarprolactone Scaffold Fabricated by Fused Deposition Modeling,” Tissue Eng., 9(1), pp. 103–112. [CrossRef]
Gaytan, S. M., Murr, L. E., Medina, F., Martinez, E., Lopez, M. I., and Wicker, R. B., 2009, “Advanced Metal Powder Based Manufacturing of Complex Components by Electron Beam Melting,” Mater. Technol.: Adv. Perform. Mater., 24(3), pp. 180–190. [CrossRef]
Khaing, M. W., Fuh, J. Y. H., and Lu, L., 2001, “Direct Metal Laser Sintering for Rapid Tooling: Processing and Characterization of EOS Parts,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 113, pp. 269–272. [CrossRef]
Atwood, C., Ensz, M., Greene, D., Griffith, M., Harwell, L., Reckaway, D., Romero, T., Schlienger, E., and Smugeresky, J., 1998, Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS): A Tool for Direct Fabrication of Metal Parts, Laser Institute of America, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 1–7.
Agarwala, M. K., Weeren, R. V., Bandyopadhyay, A., Whalen, P. J., Safari, A., and Danforth, S. C., 1996, “Fused Deposition of Ceramics and Metals: An Overview,” Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas.
Masood, S., and Song, W. Q., 2004, “Development of New Metal/Polymer Materials for Rapid Tooling Using Fused Deposition Modeling,” Mater. Des., 25(7), pp. 587–594. [CrossRef]
Mei, Z., Holder, H. A., and Vanderplas, H. A., 1996, “Low-Temperature Solders,” Hewlett-Packard J., 10, pp. 91–98, available at http://www.hpl.hp.com/hpjournal/96aug/aug96a10.pdf
Bellini, A., and Bertoldi, M., 2004, “Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition Modeling,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 126, pp. 237–246. [CrossRef]
Kraft, T., RettenmayrM., and Exner, H. E., 1996, “An Extended Numerical Procedure for Predicting Microstrucuture and Microsegregation of Multicomponent Alloys,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci., 4(161), pp. 161–177. [CrossRef]
Karahaliou, E. K., and Tarantili, P. A., 2009, “Preparation of Poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)/Montmorillonitenanocomposites and Degradation During Extrusion Reprocessing,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 113(4), pp. 2271–2281. [CrossRef]
Giles, H. F., Wagner, J. R., and Mount, E. M., 2005, Extrusion: The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook, William Andrew, Inc., Norwich, NY, pp. 179–184.
Humpston, G., and Jacobson, D. M., 2004, Principles of Soldering, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, pp. 19–21.
Dreyer, W., and Muller, W. H., 2000, “A Study of the Coarsening in Tin/Lead Solders,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 37, pp. 3841–3871. [CrossRef]
Kang, S. K., Rai, R. S., and Purushothaman, S., 1996, “Interfacial Reactions During Soldering With Lead-Tin Eutectic and Lead (Pb)-Free, Tin-Rich Solders,” J. Electron. Mater., 25(7), pp.1113–1120. [CrossRef]
Finke, S., and Feenstra, F. K., 2002, “Solid Freeform Fabrication by Extrusion and Deposition of Semi-Solid Alloys,” J. Mater. Sci., 37, pp. 3101–3106. [CrossRef]
Shen, J., Liu, Y. C., Gao, H. X., Wei, C., and Yang, Y. Q., 2005, “Formation of Bulk Ag3Sn Intermetallic Compounds in Sn-Ag Lead-Free Solders in Solidification,” J. Electron. Mater., 34(12), pp. 1591–1597. [CrossRef]
Bellini, A., 2002, “Fused Deposition of Ceramics: A Comprehensive Experimental, Analytical and Computational Study of Material Behavior, Fabrication Process and Equipment Design,” Ph.D. thesis, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA.
Yardmci, A., 1999, “Process Analysis and Development for Fused Deposition,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of liquefier used for FDM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Execution of main ACL commands

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional deposition (a) fused deposition of non-eutectic Sn–Bi solder lines, (b) design of circuit pattern, (c) fused deposition of non-eutectic Sn–Bi circuit pattern, (d) pattern built using eutectic Sn–Bi, and (e) pattern built using non-eutectic Sn–Bi

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Multilayer deposition of Sn–Bi (a) multilayer line and (b) 360× optical image of stacked layers that were polished and etched (interface is highlighted with arrows)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Deposition of Sn–Bi via FDMm into 3D vias




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In