Research Papers

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles at the Liquid–Liquid Using Ultrasonic Wave

[+] Author and Article Information
Seong-Ik Hong

e-mail: hong.sung.ik@gmail.com

Alma Duarte

e-mail: ajduarte25@gmail.com

Gabriel A. Gonzalez

e-mail: gagonzalez3@miners.utep.edu

Nam-Soo Kim

e-mail: nkim@utep.edu
Department of Metallurgical and
Materials Engineering,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 19, 2012; final manuscript received January 10, 2013; published online February 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Kyoung-sik Moon.

J. Electron. Packag 135(1), 011005 (Feb 26, 2013) (5 pages) Paper No: EP-12-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4023528 History: Received February 19, 2012; Revised January 10, 2013

The high demand of flexible electronics and the miniaturization of electronic components have been increasing very rapidly. Nanotechnology and in particular nanoparticles have become very important for the development of new technologies and applications which depend on the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles with specific properties. Significant attention has been focused on the characteristics of the nanoparticles since their properties, particle size and shape are very different when compared to those of the bulk materials. In order to produce nanoparticles with more efficient structures and electronic properties for nano ink, it is necessary to control the particle size to avoid agglomeration. Currently, the nanoparticle size and its agglomeration is controlled by surfactants, but some studies have shown that adding surfactants have negative effects on the conductivity of the nanoparticles along with the high curing temperatures of nano-ink. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by adding methanol to water instead of surfactants in order to control the silver nanoparticle size. The water and methanol solution was prepared by using different ratios v/v of water/methanol obtaining a liquid–liquid interface and forming a molecular–molecular interface restricting the silver ion movement in the solution. In addition to the liquid–liquid interface, the ion concentration and movement were also restricted through a spraying mist by using ultrasonic waves. The silver ion and the reducing agent were found to have a difference in concentration by the spraying mist method. The movement of the silver ions and the reducing agents were controlled by the difference in concentration. It was observed that the control of the nanoparticles and ion movement was more efficient by spraying silver ion solution than using a reducing agent solution. We confirmed that by increasing the volumetric ratios of methanol the silver nanoparticle size also increased. The mist particle size and the concentration were also calculated at different volumetric ratios of methanol.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of experimental equipment for spraying mist

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Metal ion's movement in the mist particle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Movement of metal ion and reducing agent at (a) when concentration of metal ion is larger than that of reducing agent and (b) when concentration of reducing agent is larger than that of metal ion [6]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Ion's movement in solution mixed methanol and water and (b) ion's movement in the water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

TEM image of Ag nanoparticles synthesized by spraying ascorbic acid into silver nitrate at various volumetric ratios of methanol (a) 0%, (b) 20%, (c) 40%, (d) 60%, and (e) 80%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

TEM image of Ag nanoparticles synthesized by spraying silver nitrate into ascorbic acid at various volumetric ratios of methanol (a) 0%, (b) 20%, (c) 40%, (d) 60%, and (e) 80%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic showing the movement of silver ion and reducing agent for method (a) and (b)




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