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Research Papers

Effect of Indium Content on the Melting Point, Dross, and Oxidation Characteristics of Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn Solders

[+] Author and Article Information
Ae-Jeong Jeon

National Core Research Center (NCRC),
Pusan National University,
Pusan 609-735, Korea

Seong-Jun Kim

Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.,
Suwon 443-742, Korea

Sang-Hoon Lee

Korea Institute of Materials Science,
Changwon 642-831, Korea

Chung-Yun Kang

National Core Research Center (NCRC),
Pusan National University,
Pusan 609-735, Korea
e-mail: kangcy@pusan.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 4, 2012; final manuscript received January 4, 2013; published online March 28, 2013. Assoc. Editor: S. B. Park.

J. Electron. Packag 135(2), 021006 (Mar 28, 2013) (5 pages) Paper No: EP-12-1082; doi: 10.1115/1.4023529 History: Received September 04, 2012; Revised January 04, 2013

This paper presents the effect of indium (In) content on the melting temperature, wettabililty, dross formation, and oxidation characteristics of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy. The melting temperature of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy (2 ≤ x ≤ 6) was lower than 473 K. The melting range between the solidus and liquidus temperatures was approximately 20 K, irrespective of the indium content. As the indium content increased, the wetting time increased slightly and the maximum wetting force remained to be mostly constant. The dross formation decreased to approximately 50% when adding 1In to Sn-2Ag-3Bi, and no dross formation was observed in the case of Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy (x ≥ 1.5) at 523 K for 180 min. Upon approaching the inside of the oxidized solder of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-1.5In alloy from the surface, the O and In contents decreased and the Sn content increased based on depth profiling analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The mechanism for restraining dross (Sn oxidation) of Sn-2Ag-3Bi alloy with addition of indium may be due to surface segregation of indium. This is due to the lower formation energy of indium oxide than those of Sn oxidation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A typical wetting curve from meniscus method; t0 = start point to wet; tw = peak time; td = drop time; Fmax = maximum wetting force; and Fw = maximum withdrawal force

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Fig. 2

Melting temperature for Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn as a function of indium content

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Fig. 3

Wetting time and maximum wetting force with respect to the indium content

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Fig. 4

Shape of the dross in Sn-2Ag-3Bi alloy stored at 523 K for 30 min; (a) surface morphology (OM) and (b) cross section (SEM)

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Fig. 5

XRD analysis on the dross produced in Sn-2Ag-3Bi alloy stored at 523 K for 30 min

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Fig. 6

Dross weight versus holding time for Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn and Sn-37Pb solders

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Fig. 7

Square of dross weight versus holding time for Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn and Sn-37Pb solders

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Fig. 8

Oxidized surface for the solders stored at 523K for 1 h. (a) Sn-37Pb, (b) Sn-2Ag, (c) Sn-2Ag-3Bi, (d) pure indium, (e) Sn-2Ag-3Bi-1In, and (f) Sn-2Ag-3Bi-1.5In.

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Fig. 9

AES analysis for the oxidized surface; (a) Sn-2Ag-3Bi, (b) Sn-2Ag-3Bi-1.5In, and (1) surface, (2) inside

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Fig. 10

Concentration distribution from the surface to the inside of the oxidized solder; (a) Sn-2Ag-3Bi and (b) Sn-2Ag-3Bi-1.5In

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Fig. 11

Standard Gibbs energies of formation for oxide [26]

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