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Research Papers

Two-Phase Liquid Cooling for Thermal Management of IGBT Power Electronic Module

[+] Author and Article Information
Avram Bar-Cohen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received January 24, 2012; final manuscript received October 10, 2012; published online March 28, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Stephen McKeown.

J. Electron. Packag 135(2), 021001 (Mar 28, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-12-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4023215 History: Received January 24, 2012; Revised October 10, 2012

Recent trends including rapid increases in the power ratings and continued miniaturization of semiconductor devices have pushed the heat dissipation of power electronics well beyond the range of conventional thermal management solutions, making control of device temperature a critical issue in the thermal packaging of power electronics. Although evaporative cooling is capable of removing very high heat fluxes, two-phase cold plates have received little attention for cooling power electronics modules. In this work, device-level analytical modeling and system-level thermal simulation are used to examine and compare single-phase and two-phase cold plates for a specified inverter module, consisting of 12 pairs of silicon insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) devices and diodes. For the conditions studied, an R134a-cooled, two-phase cold plate is found to substantially reduce the maximum IGBT temperature and spatial temperature variation, as well as reduce the pumping power and flow rate, in comparison to a conventional single-phase water-cooled cold plate. These results suggest that two-phase cold plates can be used to substantially improve the performance, reliability, and conversion efficiency of power electronics systems.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The photo of (a) Toyota Prius motor inverter and (b) an IGBT-diode pair

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Fig. 2

(a) The layout of the IGBT device and (b) the package structure of the motor inverter for Toyota Prius inverter. Unit: mm.

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the cold plate

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Fig. 4

Effect of the channel dimension on the average heat transfer coefficient of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate at 30  °C inlet temperature for various exit vapor qualities and inlet mass flow rates (Nch = 80, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 5

Effect of the saturation temperature on the average heat transfer coefficient of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate at 30  °C inlet temperature for various exit vapor qualities and inlet mass flow rates (Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 6

Variation of the local heat transfer coefficient along the axial direction of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate at 30  °C inlet temperature (Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 7

Effect of the channel dimension on the pressure drop of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate at 30  °C inlet temperature for various exit vapor qualities and inlet mass flow rate (Nch = 80 and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 8

Effect of the saturation temperature on the pressure drop of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate at 30  °C inlet temperature for various exit vapor qualities and inlet mass flow rate (Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 9

Variation of the local saturation pressure along the axial direction of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate (Tinlet = 30  °C, Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 10

Variation of the local saturation temperature along the axial direction of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate (Tinlet = 30  °C, Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 11

Effect of the channel dimension on the thermal resistance of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate for various exit vapor qualities and inlet mass flow rates (Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the R134a-cooled two-phase cold plates with water-cooled and EGW-cooled single-phase cold plates: (a) thermal resistance versus pumping power, and (b) thermal resistance versus volumetric flow rate (Tinlet = 30  °C, Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the peak IGBT temperatures in the Toyota Prius motor inverter with R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate and EGW-cooled single-phase cold plate at the inlet temperature of 30  °C (Wcp = 81 mm, Lcp = 216 mm, Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Hch = 1.0 mm, and Ww = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 14

Temperature map on the Toyota Prius motor inverter with R134a-cooled two-phase cold plate (a)–(d) and ethylene glycol (EGW)-cooled single-phase cold plate (e)–(h) at the inlet temperature of 30  °C. The peak temperatures of the IGBT are shown in the each figure (Wcp = 81 mm, Lcp = 216 mm, Nch = 80, Wch = 0.5 mm, Ww = 0.5 mm, and Hch = 1.0 mm).

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