Research Papers

The Standardization of Printable Materials and Direct Writing Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Jessica Hoffman

e-mail: jess.lynn.hoffman@gmail.com

Seyeon Hwang

e-mail: syking21@gmail.com

Ada Ortega

e-mail: ajortega4@gmail.com

Nam-Soo Kim

e-mail: nkim@utep.edu
Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968

Kyoung-sik Moon

School of Materials Science & Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: ks.moon@mse.gatech.edu

Manuscript received February 20, 2012; final manuscript received August 14, 2012; published online March 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jianmin Qu.

J. Electron. Packag 135(1), 011006 (Mar 26, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-12-1027; doi: 10.1115/1.4023809 History: Received February 20, 2012; Revised August 14, 2012

Direct-writing systems will be leading the future of additive manufacturing in that they have simple and cost-effective processes. There are various types of direct-writing systems, such as the roll-to-roll (R2R), microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet systems. These technologies are being used for the production of radio frequency identification tags (RFIDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), light-emitting diodes (LEDs), flexible electronics, solar cells, antennas, etc. Recently, the standardization of printing materials and equipment has become a key issue in the printed electronics industry. The standardization of printed electronics can be categorized into four parts: equipment, materials, testing methods, and the education of this technology.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kim, N. S., and Han, K. N., 2010, “Future Direction of Direct Writing,” J. Appl. Phys., 108, p. 102801. [CrossRef]
Kim, C. H., Lee, T. M., and Choi, B.O., 2007, “Distortion of Printed Patterns in Printed Electronics,” J. Korean Soc. Precis. Eng., 24, pp. 74–80.
Watts, M. P. C., 2007, “Advances in Roll to Roll Processing,” Impattern Solutions, Austin, TX, http://www.impattern.com/Download/RollToRollProcessing.pdf
N-Scrypt, 2011, “World-Wide Leader in Micro to Pico-Liter Dispensing Systems With Our Patented Micro Dispense Pump,” http://www.nscrypt.com/direct-print-smartpump/index.php
Lee, C. W., Kim, N. S., Shin, K. H., and Kim, C. W., 2009, “Statistical Analysis for an Estimation of Printed Pattern in Roll to Roll Printed Electronic System,” Kor. Soc. Precis. Eng., 9, pp. 235–236.
Renn, M., 2008, “M3D® Aerosol-Jet Printing—5 Microns to 5 Millimeters,” M3D Applications Laboratory, http://www.nanotxstate.org/presentation/NAC_14_Jul_2008.pdf
Clawson, B., 2013, “The Basics of Gravure Coatings,” Black Clawson Converting Machinery, http://www.er-we-pa.de/public_html/Company/pubs/gravureCoater.html
KhushbooScientific Pvt. Ltd., “3-Roll Offset Gravure Lab Coater,” http://www.khushbooscientific.com/euclid/3-ROLL%20OFFSET%20GRAVURE%20LAB%20COATER.pdf
Jung, M., Kim, J., Lim, N., Kim, J., Kang, H., Jung, K., Leonard, A. D., Tour, J. M., and Cho, G., 2010, “All Printend and Roll-to-Roll Printable 13.56-MHz-Operatet 1-bit RF Tagon Plastic Roll,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 57(3), pp. 571–580. [CrossRef]
Noh, J., Yeom, D., Lim, C. M., Cha, H., Han, J., Kim, J., Park, Y., Subramanian, V., and Cho, G., 2010, “Scalability of Roll-to-Roll Gravure-Printed Electrodes on Plastic Foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., 33(4), pp. 273–283. [CrossRef]
Wikipedia contributors, 2013, “Flexography,” Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flexography&oldid=471668709
AZoNano, 2010, “Low Cost Electronics: Printed Roll to Roll,” http://www.azonano.com/news.aspx?newsID=15600
N-Scrypt, Inc., 2011, “Micro Dispense Pump Conformal Direct 3D Printing Table Top Series,” http://www.nscrypt.com/micro-dispensing-systems-equipment/direct-print-tabletop-machines/index.php
Kim, N. S., Hwang, S. Y., Kim, E. Y., and Han, K. N., 2010, “Synthesis of Copper Nano-Ink in Alcohol Media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 49(5), p. 05EA04. [CrossRef]
Buxton, G. P., and Shah, H. M., 1990, “Ink-Jet Printing Process,” U.S. Patent No. 4,959, 661.
Microdrop Technologies GmbH, 2013, “Micro-Dispensing and Inkjet Printing Applications,” http://www.microdrop.de/
Pique, A., and Christy, D. B., 2011, Direct-Write Technologies for Rapid Prototyping: Applications to Sensors, Electronics, and Integrated Power Sources, Academic, Maryland Heights, MT.
Photo Active Nano Scale Systems, PANS, 2013, “Optomec-Maskless Mesoscale Materials Deposition (M3D®),” http://sdepscor.org/pans_ri_Optomec%20M3D.html
Renn, M. J., King, B. H., Marcelino, E., Marquez, G. J., Giridharan, M. G., and Sheu, J., 2011, “Apparatuses and Methods for Maskless Mesoscale Material Deposition,” Optomec. Patent Application No. 20110129615, http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20110129615
Daniel, J., 2010, “Printed Electronics: Technologies, Challenges, and Applications,” Palo Alto Research Center, PARC, International Workshop on Flexible Printed Electronics, Muju Resort, Korea, September 8–10, http://www.parc.com/content/attachments/printed-electronics-technologies.pdf
ObservatoryNANO, 2010, “ICT Sector Focus Report, Printed Electronics,” http://www.observatorynano.eu/project/filesystem/files/ObservatoryNanoFocusReport_PrintedElectronics.pdf
Wikipedia contributors, 2013, “Offset Printing,” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Offset_printing
Kolbusch, T., 2010, “The Smartcoater—A New Tool for R2R Coating-Printing-Laminating,” Coatema Coating Machinery GmbH, Dormagen, Germany, http://www.coatema.de/ger/downloads/vortraege/101007_coatema_symposium_2010.pdf
Pudas, M., Hagberg, J., and Leppävuori, S., 2004, “Printing Parameters and Ink Components Affecting Ultra-Fine Line Gravure-Offset Printing for Electronics Applications,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 24(10-11), pp. 2943–2950. [CrossRef]
Lahti, M., Leppävuori, S., and Lantto, V., 1999, “Gravure-Offset-Printing Technique for the Fabrication of Solid Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 142(1-4), pp. 367–370. [CrossRef]
Wikipedia contributors, “Printed Electronics,” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Printed_electronics&oldid=451428087
Amert, A. K., Oh, D.-H., and Kim, N.-S., 2010, “A Simulation and Experimental Study on Packing of Nanoinks to Attain Better Conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys., 108(10), p. 102806. [CrossRef]
Kimura, M., and Nezu, T., 2010, “First Appearances in E-Books, Lighting,” Nikkei Electronics Asia Tech-On!, http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/HONSHI/20091222/178799/
MKnews, 2010, “How Will Bankrupt Domestic Solar Companies in the Aftermath?” (in Korean), http://news.mk.co.kr/v3/view.php?sc=30000001&cm=%C7%EC%B5%E5%B6%F3%C0%CE&year=2011&no=571992&relatedcode=&sID=300
Wong, W. S., and Salleo, A., eds., 2009, Flexible Electronics: Materials and Application (Electronic Materials: Science &Technology), Vol. 11, Springer, New York.
Kunnari, E., Valkama, J., Keskinen, M., and Mansikkamaki, P., 2009, “Environmental Evaluation of New Technology: Printed Electronics Case Study,” J. Cleaner Prod., 17(9), pp. 791–799. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the R2R gravure method [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Pictorial presentation of gravure-offset printing process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

R2R reverse offset roll and stages. (a) Reverse offset roll; (b) stages.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of the R2R flexography method [11]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

nScrypt dispensing tip [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The schematic for the M3D process [16]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Showing schematic representation of main division in printed electronics




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In