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Research Papers

Reliability Assessment of Preloaded Solder Joint Under Thermal Cycling

[+] Author and Article Information
Seungbae Park

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
State University of New York at Binghamton,
P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Electronic Packaging. Manuscript received June 12, 2012; final manuscript received September 5, 2012; published online November 16, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Bongtae Han.

J. Electron. Packag 134(4), 041008 (Nov 16, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007674 History: Received June 12, 2012; Revised September 05, 2012

The ever increasing power density in modern semiconductor devices requires heat dissipation solution such as heat sink to remove heat away from the device. A compressive loading is usually applied to reduce the interfacial thermal resistance between package and heat sink. In this paper, both experimental approaches and numerical modeling were employed to study the effect of compressive loading on the interconnect reliability under thermal cycling conditions. A special loading fixture which simulated the heat sink was designed to apply compressive loading to the package. The JEDEC standard thermal cycle tests were performed and the resistance of daisy chained circuits was in situ measured. The time to crack initiation and time to permanent failure were identified separately based on in situ resistance measurement results. Failure analysis has been performed to identify the failure modes of solder joint with and without the presence of compressive loading. A finite element based thermal-fatigue life prediction model for SAC305 solder joint under compressive loading was also developed to understand the thermal-fatigue crack behaviors of solder joint and successfully validated with the experimental results.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Test vehicle with four 92BGA packages attached and daisy chained circuits of 92BGA

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Fig. 2

Compressive load fixture

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Fig. 3

Thermal chamber setup with air stream flowing from upper right corner to upper left corner

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Fig. 4

Temperature cycling profiles of all test boards

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Fig. 5

A typical resistance measurement result of the whole test period

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Fig. 6

(a) Lognormal distribution of time to crack initiation and (b) lognormal distribution of time to permanent failure

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Fig. 7

(a) Crack propagated through the IMC layer (mode 1) (b) crack propagated through Cu pad/solder interface (mode 2)

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Fig. 8

Two failure modes of failed packages with the presence of compressive load

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Fig. 9

Finite element model of the test assembly

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Fig. 10

Von Mises stress contour plot of the corner solder joint under compressive loading

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Fig. 11

Accumulated plastic work per cycle

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Fig. 12

Solder joint plastic work distribution

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