Research Papers

Pull Force and Displacement of Cu/Au Wire Interconnects

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Lau

e-mail: johnlau@itri.org.tw

S. Wu

e-mail: STWU@itri.org.tw
Electronics & Optoelectronics Research Laboratory,
Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI),
Hsinchu, 31040, Taiwan

Physics Department,
Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: lau.judy.m@gmail.com

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Electronic Packaging. Manuscript received May 16, 2011; final manuscript received May 22, 2012; published online August 29, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Cemal Basaran.

J. Electron. Packag 134(4), 041002 (Aug 29, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007233 History: Received May 16, 2011; Revised May 22, 2012

The pull force and displacement of gold (Au) and copper (Cu) wires in microelectronics are investigated in this study. Emphasis is placed on (1) the development of a set of equations for determining the internal forces and deformations of wires when subjected to an external pull force, (2) the determination of the maximum pull force (when the wire breaks) based on some failure criteria of the wires, and (3) the experimental verification of the present equations.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
Topics: Force , Wire , Displacement
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Fig. 1

Wire (BQC) is subjected to a pull force (F) at point Q and is displaced (Δ) to point Q′

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Fig. 2

Free-body diagrams for equilibrium equations of the pull force (F) and internal forces (fd and ft)

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Fig. 3

A special case: H = 0, ε = 0.5, and ϕ = 0

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Fig. 4

Maximum pull force (gf = gram force) for Cu hard wires with tensile strength 25 gf and Young's modulus 130 GPa versus wire loop height (h). The results from the equations of Ref. [4] are also plotted.

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Fig. 5

Pull test set up and results

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Fig. 6

Maximum pull force versus loop height for different Cu wires

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Fig. 7

Maximum displacement (Δ) versus Cu wire loop height (h)

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Fig. 8

Maximum pull force (gf) versus loop height for various Au wires

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Fig. 9

Maximum displacement versus loop height for various Au wires

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Fig. 10

Uniaxial test set-up of a straight wire

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Fig. 11

A typical wire before and after uniaxial test

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Fig. 12

A typical uniaxial force–displacement curve of Cu wire

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Fig. 13

A typical uniaxial force–displacement curve of Au wire




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