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Research Papers

Optimization and Design of a Multipass Branching Microchannel Heat Sink for Electronics Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Ercan M. Dede

Electronics Research Department,
Toyota Research Institute of North America,
1555 Woodridge Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: eric.dede@tema.toyota.com

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received April 19, 2011; final manuscript received July 5, 2012; published online August 29, 2012. Editor: Bahgat Sammakia.

J. Electron. Packag 134(4), 041001 (Aug 29, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007159 History: Received April 19, 2011; Revised July 05, 2012

This article is focused on the optimization and design of a multipass branching microchannel heat sink for high heat flux electronics cooling applications. A multiphysics topology optimization method is used to arrive at two different branching channel solutions for the cooling of a heated plate. These optimization results are combined and synthesized into a unique multipass manifold microchannel heat sink design that has both jet and channel based characteristics. Numerical experiments for a representative electronics package were completed to evaluate the heat sink thermal and fluid performance. It is found that the derived cold plate exhibits favorable heat transfer with low pressure drop due to multiple passes through the branching microchannels. In addition to numerical results, ongoing prototype development for concept validation is described.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 2

Flowchart of computations for topology optimization routine

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Fig. 1

Overview example of topology optimization for a standard structural compliance minimization problem

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Fig. 3

An electronics device generates heat which is transferred through a substrate layer into a multipass cold plate “cell”

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Fig. 4

3D models of thin square plates subject to uniform volumetric heat generation

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Fig. 5

Assumed 2D models with loads and boundary conditions: (a) Model 1 and (b) Model 2

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Fig. 13

Quarter-symmetry model of sample electronics package attached to a multipass cold plate

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Fig. 6

The effect of weighting values on the optimal cooling channel topology for Model 1: (a) the minimization of the mean temperature of the domain is prioritized (w1 = 30, w2 = 1) and (b) the minimization of fluid power dissipated in the domain is prioritized (w1 = 0, w2 = 1). Note: The arrows represent fluid velocity vectors.

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Fig. 7

Normalized temperature contours for the optimal cooling channel topologies from Fig. 6: (a) the minimization of the mean temperature of the domain is prioritized and (b) the minimization of fluid power dissipated in the domain is prioritized

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Fig. 8

Optimal cooling channel topologies for Model 1 obtained using coarse (a) and fine (b) computational meshes. Note: The arrows represent fluid velocity vectors.

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Fig. 9

Normalized temperature contours for the optimal cooling channel topologies from Fig. 8 using coarse (a) and fine (b) computational meshes. Normalized pressure contours for the optimal cooling channel topologies from Fig. 8 using coarse (c) and fine (d) computational meshes.

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Fig. 10

Optimal branching cooling channel solutions for: (a) Model 1—fluid flows from center to edges and (b) Model 2—fluid flows from edges to center. Note: Normalized fluid velocity contours are superimposed on an elevated surface with larger velocities at higher elevation and smaller velocities at lower elevation. Arrows indicate fluid flow direction.

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Fig. 11

Exploded view of the multipass cold plate assembly (viewed from the bottom-up) on the left and corresponding cooling channel optimization results for Models 1 and 2 on the right. Note: The optimization results are taken from Fig. 10.

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Fig. 12

Cold plate side cross-sectional view showing fluid flow path: (a) multipass concept and (b) single-pass concept. Note: Arrows indicate fluid flow direction.

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Fig. 17

Fluid streamlines for the multipass cold plate design at a 0.125 l/min coolant flow rate

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Fig. 18

Maximum device temperature as a function of coolant flow rate. Note: The maximum temperature occurs at the top-center of the device.

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Fig. 14

Comparison of the cold plate area-averaged unit thermal resistance

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the cold plate pressure drop

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Fig. 16

Comparison of local surface convection coefficient (units: W/m2 · K) at a 0.125 l/min coolant flow rate: (a) multipass and (b) single-pass

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Fig. 19

Example fabrication method for a layered cold plate: (a) diffusion bonded sample of two 6101-T6 aluminum plates and (b) cross-sectional zoomed view of a five-layer aluminum diffusion bonded multipass cold plate sample. The dashed box in (b) denotes the three-layer portion of the cold plate structure that is considered herein.

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