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RESEARCH PAPER

The Challenges of Electronic Cooling: Past, Current and Future

[+] Author and Article Information
Richard C. Chu

International Business Machines, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601

J. Electron. Packag 126(4), 491-500 (Jan 24, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1839594 History: Received May 06, 2004; Revised October 31, 2004; Online January 24, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Bergles,  A. E., 1986, “The Evolution of Cooling Technology for Electrical, Electronic, and Microelectronic Equipment,” ASME HTD, 57, pp. 1–9.
Hanson, D., 1982, The New Alchemists, Avon, New York.
Seely, J. H., and Chu, R. C., 1972, Heat Transfer in Microelectronic Equipment, Dekker, New York.
Antonetti, V. W., Chu, R. C., and Seely, J. H., 1967, “Thermal Design for IBM System/360 Model 91,” Proceedings of the Eight International Electronic Circuit Packaging Symposium, San Francisco, CA.
Antonetti,  V. W., Simons,  R. E., and Arent,  G. R., 1973, “Cooling A Hot Computer,” Electro Mechanical Design, 17(9), pp. 34–37.
Hwang, U. P., and Simons, R. E., 1980, “Dual-Pull Air Cooling for Computer Frame,” U.S. Patent 4,233,644.
Oktay, D., Dessauer, B., and Horvath, J. L., 1983, “New Internal and External Cooling Enhancements for the Air-Cooled IBM 4381 Module,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers, Port Chester, NY.
Chu, R. C., Gupta, O. R., Hwang, U. P., and Simons, R. E., 1976, “Gas Encapsulated Cooling Module,” U.S. Patent 3,741,292.
Singh,  P., Becker,  D., Cozzolino,  V., Ellsworth,  M., Schmidt,  R., and Seminaro,  E., 1998, “System Packaging for a CMOS Mainframe,” Adv. Microelectron., 25, No. (7), pp. 12–17.
Bergles,  A. E., 1988, “High Heat Flux Boiling Applied to Micro-electronics Thermal Control,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 15, pp. 509–531.
Pugh, E., Johnson, L., and Palmer, J., 1991, IBM’s 360 and Early 370 Systems, MIT, Cambridge.
Chu, R. C., Gupta, O. R., Hwang, U. P., Moran, K. P., and Simons, R. E., 1969, “Liquid Cooling Technology for High-Performance Packages and Systems,” IBM TR 00.1945.
Chu, R. C., Gupta, O. R., Hwang, U. P., Moran, K. P., and Simons, R. E., 1971, “Cooling System for Data Processing Equipment,” U.S. Patent 3,568,101.
Aakalu, N. G., Chu, R. E., and Simons, R. E., 1973, “Liquid Encapsulated Air Cooled Module,” U.S. Patent 3,741,292.
Chu, R. C., and Simons, R. E., 1996, “Review of Boiling Heat Transfer for Cooling of High-Power Density Integrated Circuit Chips,” in Process, Enhanced, and Multiphase Heat Transfer: A Festschrift for A. E. Bergles, Bergles, A. E., Manglik, R. M., and Kraus, A. D., eds., Begell House, New York.
Sperry, C., Claybaker, P., Cree, R., Gill, J., Ing, P., Philstrom, R., and Webster, J., 1993, “SS-1 Supercomputer Cooling System,” Proceedings of the 43rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference.
Chrysler,  G. M., Chu,  R. C., and Simons,  R. E., 1995, “Jet Impingement Boiling of a Dielectric Coolant in Narrow Gaps,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A, 18(3), pp. 527–533.
Vader,  D. T., Chrysler,  G. M., Chu,  R. C., and Simons,  R. E., 1995, “Experimental Investigation of Subcooled Liquid Nitrogen Impingement Cooling of a Silicon Chip,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A, 18(4), pp. 788–794.
Schmidt, R. R., 2000, “Low Temperature Electronics Cooling,” Electronics Cooling, 6 , No. 3, pp. 18–24.
Schmidt,  R. R., and Notohardjono,  B., 2002, “High-End Server Low Temperature Cooling,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 46(2), pp. 739–751.
Chu, R. C., and Simons, R. E., 1994, “Cooling Technology for High Performance Computers: IBM Sponsored University Research,” Cooling of Electronic Systems, Kakac, S., Yuncu, H., and Hijikata, K., eds., K. Luwer Academic, Dordrecht.
Chu, R. C., 1999, “A Review of IBM Sponsored Research and Development Projects for Computer Cooling,” Proceedings of the 15th Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, pp. 151–165.
“Thermal Management,” National Electronics Manufacturing Technology Roadmaps, Chu, R. C. and Joshi, Y., co-chairs, 2002, National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, VA.

Figures

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Parallel impinging airflow cooling scheme used in IBM 4381 processor
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Impingement air cooled MCM used in IBM 4381 processor
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Cutaway view of IBM TCM with water cooled cold plate or air cooled heat sink
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Cross-sectional view of central processor module package with thermal grease path(s) to module hat 9
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Large scale computer configuration of the 1980s with coolant distribution unit (CDU)
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TCM modular cold plate subsystem and water distribution loops in IBM 3081 processor frame
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Flow schematic of a typical IBM coolant distribution unit (CDU)
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Range of heat fluxes that may be accommodated with direct liquid immersion cooling of electronic chips
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Experimental direct immersion gravity feed, sub-cooled, flow boiling system
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Air or water cooled liquid encapsulated module (LEM) package
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Direct immersion liquid cooled test system for TCM substrates with chips
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The chronological evolution of module level heat flux in mainframe computers
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Application of boundary layer turbulators on air cooled cards to enhance heat transfer
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The effect of boundary layer turbulators on the external thermal resistance of 12.5×12.5 mm modules
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Typical processor gate configuration with air-to-water heat exchanger between boards
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Typical air temperature profiles across 5 high board column with an without air-to-water heat exchangers between boards
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IBM experimental parallel air impinging cooling system
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Side view of liquid immersion cooling test chamber showing movable electrical probe assembly
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Direct immersion liquid jet impingement cooling scheme for stack of double sided boards
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Typical direct liquid jet impingement cooling performance for 6.5 mm×6.5 mm chip
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Typical direct liquid N2 pool boiling cooling performance for 6.5 mm×6.5 mm chip
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Typical direct liquid N2 jet impingement cooling performance for 6.5 mm×6.5 mm chip
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IBM S390/RY5 server with refrigeration cooled processor module and redundant modular refrigeration unit (MRU)

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