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RESEARCH PAPER

The Challenges of Electronic Cooling: Past, Current and Future

[+] Author and Article Information
Richard C. Chu

International Business Machines, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601

J. Electron. Packag 126(4), 491-500 (Jan 24, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1839594 History: Received May 06, 2004; Revised October 31, 2004; Online January 24, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Figures

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The chronological evolution of module level heat flux in mainframe computers
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Application of boundary layer turbulators on air cooled cards to enhance heat transfer
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The effect of boundary layer turbulators on the external thermal resistance of 12.5×12.5 mm modules
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Typical processor gate configuration with air-to-water heat exchanger between boards
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Typical air temperature profiles across 5 high board column with an without air-to-water heat exchangers between boards
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IBM experimental parallel air impinging cooling system
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Parallel impinging airflow cooling scheme used in IBM 4381 processor
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Impingement air cooled MCM used in IBM 4381 processor
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Cutaway view of IBM TCM with water cooled cold plate or air cooled heat sink
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Cross-sectional view of central processor module package with thermal grease path(s) to module hat 9
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Large scale computer configuration of the 1980s with coolant distribution unit (CDU)
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TCM modular cold plate subsystem and water distribution loops in IBM 3081 processor frame
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Flow schematic of a typical IBM coolant distribution unit (CDU)
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Range of heat fluxes that may be accommodated with direct liquid immersion cooling of electronic chips
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Experimental direct immersion gravity feed, sub-cooled, flow boiling system
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Air or water cooled liquid encapsulated module (LEM) package
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Direct immersion liquid cooled test system for TCM substrates with chips
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Side view of liquid immersion cooling test chamber showing movable electrical probe assembly
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Direct immersion liquid jet impingement cooling scheme for stack of double sided boards
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Typical direct liquid jet impingement cooling performance for 6.5 mm×6.5 mm chip
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Typical direct liquid N2 pool boiling cooling performance for 6.5 mm×6.5 mm chip
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Typical direct liquid N2 jet impingement cooling performance for 6.5 mm×6.5 mm chip
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IBM S390/RY5 server with refrigeration cooled processor module and redundant modular refrigeration unit (MRU)

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