Research Papers

Failure Analysis of Halogen-Free Printed Circuit Board Assembly Under Board-Level Drop Test

[+] Author and Article Information
Hung-Jen Chang1

Department of Engineering Science,  National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, TaiwanN9896123@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Chau-Jie Zhan, Tao-Chih Chang

Assembly and Reliability Technology Department,  Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan

Jung-Hua Chou

Department of Engineering Science,  National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan


Corresponding author.

J. Electron. Packag 134(1), 011011 (Mar 19, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005956 History: Received November 01, 2011; Revised January 16, 2012; Published March 07, 2012; Online March 19, 2012

In this study, a lead-free dummy plastic ball grid array component with daisy-chains and Sn4.0 Ag0.5 Cu Pb-free solder balls was assembled on an halogen-free high density interconnection printed circuit board (PCB) by using Sn1.0 Ag0.5 Cu solder paste on the Cu pad surfaces of either organic solderable preservative (OSP) or electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). The assembly was tested for the effect of the formation extent of Ag3 Sn intermetallic compound. Afterward a board-level pulse-controlled drop test was conducted on the as-reflowed assemblies according to the JESD22-B110 and JESD22-B111 standards, the impact performance of various surface finished halogen-free printed circuit board assembly was evaluated. The test results showed that most of the fractures occurred around the pad on the test board first. Then cracks propagated across the outer build-up layer. Finally, the inner copper trace was fractured due to the propagated cracks, resulting in the failure of the PCB side. Interfacial stresses numerically obtained by the transient stress responses supported the test observation as the simulated initial crack position was the same as that observed.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

132 mm × 77 mm PCB with assembled drop test IC packages

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Figure 2

Board-level drop system

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Figure 3

Board-level drop test model of halogen-free PCB assembly

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Figure 4

Submodel of critical solder joint

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Figure 5

Interfacial microstructures of (a) package side and (b) PCB-side when the SAC405 solder balls were soldered on PCB with OSP finish by SAC105 solder paste

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Figure 6

Interfacial microstructures of PCB-side when the SAC405 solder balls were soldered on PCB with ENIG finish by SAC105 solder paste

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Figure 7

Weibull distribution after drop test

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Figure 8

Cross-section of solder joint failure with an anchored void on the ENIG pad

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Figure 9

Cross-section of corner solder interconnect shown to fail at the package to solder interconnect interface

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Figure 10

Cross-section of corner solder joint shown to fail at the halogen-free resin

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Figure 11

Interconnect structure and potential failure modes from drop test

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Figure 12

Z-axis peeling stress on top (up) and bottom (down) surfaces of solder joints

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Figure 13

Peeling stress histories

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Figure 14

PCB maximum warp distribution




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