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CARBON NANOTUBES

Palladium Thiolate Bonding of Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephen L. Hodson

 School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907stephen.l.hodson@gmail.com

Thiruvelu Bhuvana

 Birck Nanotechnology Center, West Lafayette, IN 47907; Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, Indiabhuv.02@gmail.com

Baratunde A. Cola

 George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332cola@gatech.edu

Xianfan Xu

School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center,  Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907xxu@purdue.edu

G. U. Kulkarni

 Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, Indiakulkarni@jncasr.ac.in

Timothy S. Fisher

School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center,  Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907tsfisher@purdue.edu

J. Electron. Packag 133(2), 020907 (Jun 23, 2011) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004094 History: Received December 01, 2009; Revised January 13, 2011; Published June 23, 2011; Online June 23, 2011

Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays can be effective thermal interface materials with high compliance and conductance over a wide temperature range. Here, we study CNT interface structures in which free CNT ends are bonded using Pd hexadecanethiolate, Pd(SC16 H35 )2 , to an opposing substrate (one-sided interface) or opposing CNT array (two-sided interface) to enhance contact conductance while maintaining a compliant joint. The Pd weld is particularly attractive for its mechanical stability at high temperatures. A transient photoacoustic (PA) method is used to measure the thermal resistance of the palladium-bonded CNT interfaces. The interfaces were bonded at moderate pressures and then tested at 34 kPa using the PA technique. At an interface temperature of approximately 250°C, one-sided and two-sided palladium-bonded interfaces achieved thermal resistances near 10 mm2 K/W and 5 mm2 K/W, respectively.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Pd(SC16 H35 )2 structure

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Figure 2

CNT arrays synthesized on Si substrate. (a) FESEM cross-section image illustrating array height and (b) FESEM image illustrating CNT diameter.

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Figure 3

Post-thermolysis FESEM image of CNT array on Si substrate

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Figure 4

Cross-sections of various TIM structures tested. (a) Si/CNT/Ag and (b) Si/CNT/CNT/Cu.

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Figure 5

Photoacoustic experimental setup

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Figure 6

Bulk thermal interface resistance as a function of temperature. (a) Si/CNT/Ag w/ and w/o Pd nanoparticles and (b) Si/CNT/CNT/Cu w/ and w/o Pd nanoparticles.

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Figure 7

SEM images of Si/CNT/Ag foil structure after detachment. (a) and (b) correspond to the Si substrate while (c) and (d) correspond to the Ag foil.

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Figure 8

SEM images of Si/CNT/CNT/Cu structure after detachment. (a) and (b) correspond to the Si substrate while (c) corresponds to the Cu foil.

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