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Research Papers

Multiple Fan-Heat Sink Cooling System With Enhanced Evaporator Base: Design, Modeling, and Experiment

[+] Author and Article Information
Pablo D. Quinones

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI 48105pablo.quinones@upr.edu

Lawrence S. Mok

TJ Watson Research Center, IBM Corporation, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598lmok@ieee.org

J. Electron. Packag 131(3), 031009 (Jul 14, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3153407 History: Received October 16, 2008; Revised April 03, 2009; Published July 14, 2009

A cooling device using stacked centrifugal fans and circular heat sinks was designed for cooling a semiconductor chip with a heat flux near 125W/cm2. In this device, heat is conducted from the chip to a copper heat distribution block and then distributed to multiple heat sinks via four heat pipes. The copper block with embedded heat pipes or evaporator block was optimized using finite element analysis, and several cases were validated with experimental data. The experiments showed great benefits by having a second fan/heat sink in the device. The copper block by itself was found to contribute more than half of the overall thermal resistance of the cooling device. The thermal spreading resistance of the block can be reduced by about 70% if a piece of high-conductivity material, such as a diamond-copper composite, is inserted into its base. The thermal spreading resistance is generally lower when the thickness of the high-conductivity base piece increases. However, the analysis shows that the benefit of using a high-conductivity base tapers off as the thickness of the base piece nears the diameter of the heat pipes (δ=1) and weakly worsens after (δ>1). The base will also not have a benefit when the size of the chip approaches that of the copper block (A=1).

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 6

Prototype inside wind tunnel

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Figure 7

Prototype and experimental setup

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Figure 8

Total device thermal resistance versus number of heat sink assemblies

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Figure 9

Total device thermal resistance versus channel fan flow rate

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Figure 10

Total device thermal resistance versus heat sink fan flow rate

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Figure 11

Device total thermal resistance variation with different parameter combinations

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Figure 12

Total device % difference in thermal resistance between systems A and B of Fig. 1

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Figure 13

Geometry for the FEM model of the heat distribution block

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Figure 14

Cross section of a heat pipe with an axial groove wick

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Figure 16

The heat energy distribution through the heat pipes

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Figure 17

Temperature contours in the heat distribution block using 2 V heat pipes (14 symmetrical section) at k∗=1

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Figure 18

Heat distribution block thermal resistances versus conductivity of the base material

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Figure 19

Heat distribution block thermal resistance versus thickness of the base material

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Figure 20

Evaporator thermal resistance versus size of the heat source area

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Figure 1

Exploded view of the cooling device having three sets of fans and heat sink assemblies

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Figure 2

Heat distribution blocks with heat pipes: (a) four heat pipes and (b) 2 V heat pipes

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Figure 3

A heat distribution block with two U-shaped heat pipes embedded inside

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Figure 15

Temperature contours in the heat distribution block at k∗=1

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Figure 4

Generation 2 system: (a) heat distribution block with high conduction insert and (b) stacked fin heat sink

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Figure 5

Generation 1 heat sink and fin structure

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