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Design Innovation

Fluid-to-Fluid Spot-to-Spreader (F2/S2) Hybrid Heat Sink for Integrated Chip-Level and Hot Spot-Level Thermal Management

[+] Author and Article Information
Craig Green, Yogendra K. Joshi

Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

Andrei G. Fedorov1

Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332andrei.fedorov@me.gatech.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Electron. Packag 131(2), 025002 (Apr 03, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3104029 History: Received August 25, 2008; Revised December 22, 2008; Published April 03, 2009

An innovative heat sink design aimed at meeting both the hot spot and large background heat flux requirements of next generation integrated circuits is presented. The heat sink design utilizes two separate unmixed fluids to meet the cooling requirements of the chip with one fluid acting as a fluidic spreader dedicated to cooling the hot spots only, while the second fluid serves as both a coolant for the background heat fluxes and an on-chip regenerator for the hot spot fluid. In this paper the conceptual heat sink design is presented and its theoretical capabilities are explored through optimization calculations and computational fluid dynamics simulations. It has been shown that through close coupling of the two thermal fluids the proposed hybrid heat sink can theoretically remove hot spot heat fluxes on the order of 1kW/cm2 and background heat fluxes up to 100W/cm2 in one compact and efficient package. Additionally, it has been shown that the F2/S2 design can handle these thermal loads with a relatively small pressure drop penalty, within the realm of existing micropump technologies. Finally, the feasibility of the F2/S2 design was demonstrated experimentally by modifying a commercially available, air-cooled aluminum heat sink to accommodate an integrated hot spot cooling system and fluidic spreader. The results of these experiments, where the prototype heat sink was able to remove hot spot heat fluxes of up to 365W/cm2 and background heat fluxes of up to 20W/cm2, are reported.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the F2/S2 heat sink with microchannel-based forced-convective-cooling of hot spots

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Figure 2

Cross-sectional view of microconstriction for hot spot cooling

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Figure 3

Photographs of the F2/S2 heat sink prototype and key elements

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Figure 4

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Figure 5

Heat flux versus pressure drop for various channel heights

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Figure 6

Performance envelope for hot spot cooling by single-phase jet impingement array

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Figure 7

Performance envelope for hot spot cooling by single-phase constriction flow

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Figure 8

Performance envelope for hot spot cooling by two-phase constriction flow

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Figure 9

Performance envelope for hot spot cooling by two-phase jet impingement array

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Figure 10

Influence of fin wall thickness and number of channels on thermal resistance (H=500 μm and power=2.89 W)

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Figure 11

Fractional increase (vertical axis) in fluid 2 (background) flow rate requirements to enable hot spot coolant regeneration

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Figure 12

Influence of hot spot coolant regeneration on pumping power

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Figure 13

Comparisons of hot spot and baseline chip temperatures with and without use of the hot spot fluid 1 cooling

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