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Design Innovation

Direct De-Ionized Water-Cooled Semiconductor Laser Package for Photodynamic Therapy of Esophageal Carcinoma: Design and Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Gemunu Happawana

Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740ghappawana@csufresno.edu

Amaranath Premasiri

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275apremasi@smu.edu

Arye Rosen

Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University, Bossone 7-504, Philadelphia, PA 19104ar86@drexel.edu

J. Electron. Packag 131(2), 025001 (Apr 01, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3103946 History: Received April 18, 2008; Revised September 29, 2008; Published April 01, 2009

Effective delivery of the activation light for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of internal organs is a challenge. In this paper, we present a direct de-ionized water-cooling semiconductor laser package design for PDT of esophageal carcinomas. This self-sustained photonic light delivery system is designed to provide the correct amount of light dose for optimal treatment. The direct de-ionized water-cooling technique discussed in this paper not only removes heat efficiently but also results in a high optical power output. Voltage-current and power-current characteristics, and near field optical patterns for unidirectional and direct de-ionized water-cooling, are used to show the validity of the technique. Modeling of fluid flow is conducted to investigate the effect of flowing water over the laser package.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 3

The current-voltage and current-optical power characteristics of a 635 nm laser with and without de-ionized water-cooling

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Figure 4

Light emitting pattern of an individual semiconductor laser in continuous power supply

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Figure 5

Light emitting pattern of the individual laser sinking in DI water in cw power supply

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Figure 6

1/6 of the laser package used for the modeling

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Figure 7

The discretized 3D model and the corresponding mesh of the 1/6 of the package

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Figure 8

1/6 of the semiconductor laser package

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Figure 9

Maximum temperature of the laser running in cw mode (a) with unidirectional cooling and (b) with DI water-cooling

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Figure 10

50% duty cycle of laser (a) with unidirectional cooling and (b) with DI water-cooling

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Figure 11

10% duty cycle of laser (a) with unidirectional cooling and (b) with DI water-cooling

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Figure 12

1% duty cycle of laser (a) with unidirectional cooling and (b) with DI water-cooling

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Figure 13

Steady state thermal simulation results of the GaAs semiconductor laser with (a) unidirectional cooling and (b) direct de-ionized water-cooling

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Figure 14

Direct de-ionized water-cooled semiconductor laser package

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Figure 15

Component level packaging failures during direct DI water-cooling

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Figure 16

Mounted wall shear stress of the package with DI water flowing at a speed of 50 ml/s

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Figure 17

Velocity profile of the flowing water inside the package. The package dimensions shown here are in mm and the flow velocity is in mm/s.

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Figure 18

A schematic of a balloon catheter. Adapted from Ref. 14.

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Figure 19

Component level packaging of semiconductor laser for the package design with DI water running over the lasers

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Figure 1

Semiconductor laser package design for unidirectional cooling: (a) design and (b) fabrication

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Figure 2

Semiconductor laser package design for direct de-ionized water-cooling: (a) design and (b) fabrication

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