An Alternative Method for the Cooling of Power Microelectronics Using Classical Refrigeration

[+] Author and Article Information
Victor Chiriac

Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Technology Solutions Organization, 2100 East Elliot Road, Tempe, AZ 85284victor.chiriac@freescale.com

Florea Chiriac

Department of Thermodynamics, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Technical University of Civil Engineering, 66 Pache Protopopescu Boulevard, Sector 2, 73232 Bucharest, Romaniafchiriac@eits.mediasat.ro

J. Electron. Packag 130(4), 041103 (Nov 13, 2008) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2993148 History: Received September 12, 2007; Revised September 01, 2008; Published November 13, 2008

Classical refrigeration using vapor compression has been widely applied over the past decades to large-scale industrial systems, with few known applications to the microelectronic cooling field, due to the small size limitation. The present study proposes an efficient mechanical refrigeration system to actively cool the electronic components populating a printed circuit board in high-power microelectronic system. The proposed system includes several miniaturized components—compressor, evaporator, and condenser—part of a refrigeration system designed to fit the smaller scale power electronics. The system is thermally optimized to reach high coefficients of performance (COPs). An array of microchannels is used for the evaporator/condenser units. A previous study indicated that the R-134s refrigerant provides the best COP/feasibility ratio, while being the most suitable for microelectronic applications (Phelan, , “Designing a Mesoscale Vapor Compression Refrigerator for Cooling High-Power Microelectronics  ,” Proceedings of the ITHERM’04, Las Vegas, NV). The present study develops an analytical model of the proposed small scale vapor-compression refrigerator using the R-134a refrigerant. The refrigeration system is thermally optimized for cooling powers ranging from 20 W to 100 W, with the COP of the system reaching values up to 4.5. The advantages of the proposed system are highlighted, establishing a baseline performance versus size relationship for vapor-compression refrigerators, to serve as the basis for comparison for future miniaturized refrigeration systems.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Vapor compression refrigeration system

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Figure 2

Overall refrigeration system (with PCB and packages)

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Figure 3

Thermodynamic cycle of the refrigeration system

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Figure 4

Evaporator/package stackup

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Figure 5

Condenser/fan unit

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Figure 6

Evaporator cross section

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Figure 7

Evaporator schematic

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Figure 8

Condenser schematic




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