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Research Papers

Design for Reliability Applied to Packaging of a MOEMS Switch

[+] Author and Article Information
Abiodun A. Fasoro, Dereje A. Agonafer, Harry E. Stephanou

Automation and Robotics Research Institute, The University of Texas at Arlington, 7300 Jack Newell Boulevard, South Fort Worth, TX 76118

Manoj Mittal

 Bennington Microtechnology Center, 441 Water Street, North Bennington, VT 05257

Dan O. Popa

Automation and Robotics Research Institute, The University of Texas at Arlington, 7300 Jack Newell Boulevard, South Fort Worth, TX 76118popa@arri.uta.edu

J. Electron. Packag 130(4), 041003 (Nov 17, 2008) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2993142 History: Received July 09, 2007; Revised December 31, 2007; Published November 17, 2008

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) consist of moving mechanical microparts often integrated with electronics and optics that may be used for sensing or actuating purposes. MEMS and micro-opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) packaging requirements vary widely with application, but they generally involve protecting the device from the damaging effects of the environment, such as moisture and dust. Reliability is often not considered as a design factor during product development. Rather, reliability is assessed using life tests, accelerated tests, and other techniques after a product has completed its development cycle. The goal of design for reliability (DfR) is to be proactive by introducing reliability early in product development so that concerns are identified and assessed at every stage, from the conception to obsolescence. In this paper, we present a framework for applying DfR principles to MOEMS packaging. Such an approach is desirable for several reasons. First, it reduces the cost and time for product development by departing from the “build-test-rebuild” approach. Second, it provides better understanding of the process input-output relationships, so the practitioner is better able to make informed design decisions. Lastly, this can lead to enhanced product performance, reliability, and reduced cost. To demonstrate the use of DfR in MOEMS packaging, we present a case study involving carrier level packaging of a MOEMS switch. The reliability requirements for this device are stringent, namely, a shelf life of 25years or more, requiring hermetic sealing through the use of metal seals and no organic compounds inside the package. Simulation and experiments are used systematically in order to guide the package design and process windows, ensuring that the device passes MIL-STD reliability tests. The packaging processes include fluxless die-to-carrier attachment, optical fiber-to-carrier attachment, and hermetic sealing. Results show that our packaging approach can determine adequate process windows using only a small number of reliability experiments.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

MOEMS application device showing the carrier, optical fibers, MOEMS die, and cap chip (lid not shown)

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Figure 2

Butterfly and plug in packages illustrating possible electrical interconnection methods

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Figure 3

Packaging process flow

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Figure 4

Illustration of setup for MEMS die-to-carrier and die-to-cap-chip attachment showing fixture for applying bonding pressure to ensure intimate surface contact

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Figure 5

Cap chip for MEMS device sealing showing solder metal along the die perimeter and pads for electrical interconnects

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Figure 6

Experimental setup consisting of computer controlled microstages used for fiber alignment and insertion for fiber-to-carrier attachment

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Figure 7

Schematic showing the carrier, metalized optical fibers, electrical leads exiting the carrier sidewalls, and solder preform guide for feeding during fiber-to-carrier attachment

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Figure 15

Half normal plot of the standardized effects

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Figure 16

Pareto chart of the standardized effects

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Figure 17

Evidence of bulk solder failure from optical fiber obtained from the fiber pull test

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Figure 9

Temperature distribution in the Kovar® carrier. Simulation conditions are 12W power, 1mm diameter spot size, 100s heating duration, and 35% laser absorption.

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Figure 10

Effects of thermal isolation slots on temperature distribution in the Kovar® carrier. Simulation conditions are 12W power, 1mm diameter spot size, 100s heating duration, and 35% laser absorption.

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Figure 11

Effects of surface modification and geometry modification on package heat distribution

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Figure 12

Sealed carrier package with lid

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Figure 13

Illustration of the test fixture for the die shear test showing the MEMS die, the flat Kovar® plate, and the shearing tool

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Figure 14

Sample die shear test result from the Instron® instrument

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Figure 8

Temperature distribution in the Kovar® carrier. Simulation conditions are 12W power, 1mm diameter spot size, 100s heating duration, and 2.5% laser absorption.

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