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Research Papers

Boiling of Water at Subatmospheric Conditions With Enhanced Structures: Effect of Liquid Fill Volume

[+] Author and Article Information
Aniruddha Pal

 Etch Products Business Group, Applied Materials Inc., Sunnyvale, CA 94086

Yogendra Joshi

G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30309

J. Electron. Packag 130(1), 011010 (Feb 12, 2008) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2837523 History: Received January 16, 2007; Revised July 11, 2007; Published February 12, 2008

Liquid cooling with phase change has been demonstrated to be a very efficient technique for thermal management of electronics because it has the potential to achieve high heat transfer coefficients compared to single phase liquid cooling. Previous studies on liquid immersion cooling with fluorocarbons have shown the effectiveness of boiling enhancement structures in lowering boiling incipience, raising the critical heat flux, and reducing evaporator size. Two-phase thermosyphons are an alternative to liquid immersion cooling, where phase change liquid cooling can be implemented within a closed-loop device. The present study involves a two-phase thermosyphon with boiling enhancement structure in the evaporator, which is subjected to subatmospheric pressures for lowering the saturation temperature of the working fluid. The objective of the present research is to provide a detailed understanding of the effect of liquid-fill level on boiling of water with enhancement structures at subatmospheric pressures. The study will take into account the influence of system pressure and enhancement structure geometry on the boiling heat transfer. Experiments were performed at three different pressures, 9.7kPa, 15kPa, and 21kPa, using a stacked enhancement structure with three different geometries (one, four, and six layers), corresponding to three different liquid-fill levels (fill ratios of 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9). The results are compared with a base line study on subatmospheric pressure boiling from a plain surface at similar liquid-fill levels.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Figure 2

Detailed sketch of the evaporator assembly

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Figure 3

Detailed sketch of the enhanced structure with stacked multiple layers (six layers shown)

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Figure 4

Effect of liquid-fill levels on boiling from a plain surface at different pressures

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Figure 5

Effect of liquid-fill levels on thermal resistance for boiling with plain surface at 21kPa

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Figure 6

Effect of liquid-fill levels on boiling from a one-layer structure at 9.7kPa

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Figure 7

Effect of liquid-fill levels on boiling from a one-layer structure at 21kPa

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Figure 8

Effect of liquid-fill levels on thermal resistance for boiling with single-layer structure at 15kPa

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Figure 9

Effect of liquid-fill level on boiling from a four-layer structure at 9.7kPa

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Figure 10

Effect of liquid-fill level on boiling from a four-layer structure at 15kPa

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Figure 11

Effect of liquid-fill level on boiling from a four-layer structure at 21kPa

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Figure 12

Effect of liquid-fill level on thermal resistance for boiling with four-layer structure at 9.7kPa

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Figure 13

Effect of liquid-fill level on boiling from a six-layer structure at 9.7kPa

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Figure 14

Effect of liquid-fill level on boiling from a six-layer structure at 15kPa

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Figure 15

Effect of liquid-fill level on boiling from a six-layer structure at 21kPa

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Figure 16

Effect of liquid-fill level on thermal resistance for boiling with six-layer structure at 9.7kPa

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