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RESEARCH PAPERS

A Systematic Approach to Predicting Critical Heat Flux for Inclined Sprays

[+] Author and Article Information
Milan Visaria

 Purdue University International Electronic Cooling Alliance (PUIECA), 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907

Issam Mudawar1

 Purdue University International Electronic Cooling Alliance (PUIECA), 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907mudawar@ecn.purdue.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Electron. Packag 129(4), 452-459 (Mar 26, 2007) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2804095 History: Received October 16, 2006; Revised March 26, 2007

This study provides a new systematic approach to predicting the effects of spray inclination on critical heat flux (CHF). Experiments were performed with three pressure spray nozzles over a broad range of inclination angles at five flow rates and subcoolings of 15°C and 25°C. These experiments also included high-speed video analysis of spray formation, impact, and recoil for a 1.0×1.0cm2 test surface. Inclined sprays produced elliptical impact areas, distorted by lateral liquid flow that provided partial resistance to dryout along the downstream edge of the impact ellipse. These observations are used to determine the locations of CHF commencement along the test surface. A new theoretical model shows that increasing inclination angle away from normal decreases both the spray impact area and the volumetric flux. These trends explain the observed trend of decreasing CHF with increasing inclination angle. Combining the new model with a previous point-based CHF correlation shows great success in predicting the effects of spray inclination on CHF.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 5

Locations of CHF commencement

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Figure 6

Variation of CHF with inclination angle for three nozzles at (a) ΔTsub=15°C and (b) ΔTsub=25°C

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Figure 7

Nomenclature for inclined spray model

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Figure 8

Variation of differential area ratio corresponding to end points of the minor axis of impact ellipse with inclination angle for three nozzles

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Figure 9

Variation of spray impact area with inclination angle for three nozzles

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Figure 10

Correlation of CHF data for PF-5052 for different orientations and nozzles based on average volumetric flux

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Figure 4

Images of Nozzle 1 sprays at relatively low flow rate of 4.5×10−7m3∕s for adiabatic and pre-CHF conditions

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Figure 3

Images of Nozzle 1 sprays at relatively high flow rate of 3×10−6m3∕s for adiabatic and pre-CHF conditions

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Figure 2

Two-phase spray cooling loop

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Figure 1

Nozzle positioning system inside the spray chamber

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