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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Chip to System Levels Thermal Needs and Alternative Thermal Technologies for High Brightness LEDS

[+] Author and Article Information
Mehmet Arik

Thermal Systems Laboratory, General Electric Company Global Research Center, One Research Circle ES-102, Niskayuna, NY 12309arik@crd.ge.com

Anant Setlur

Optical Materials Laboratory, General Electric Company Global Research Center, One Research Circle, Bldg. K1-4A41, Niskayuna, NY 12309

Stanton Weaver

Micro and Nano Structures Tech. Lab, General Electric Company Global Research Center, One Research Circle, Bldg. KW, B1432, Niskayuna, NY 12309

Deborah Haitko

Electronic Materials Laboratory, General Electric Company Global Research Center, One Research Circle ES-102, Niskayuna, NY 12309

James Petroski

 GE Lumination, 6180 Halle Drive, Valley View, OH 44125

J. Electron. Packag 129(3), 328-338 (Apr 09, 2007) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2753958 History: Received June 14, 2006; Revised April 09, 2007

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) historically have been used for indicators and produced low amounts of heat. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors has allowed them to penetrate specialty and general illumination applications. The increased electrical currents used to drive the LEDs have resulted in higher heat fluxes than those for average silicon integrated circuits (i.e., ICs). This has created a need to focus more attention on the thermal management engineering of LED power packages. The output of a typical commercial high brightness, 1mm2, LED has exceeded 100lm at drive levels approaching 3W. This corresponds to a heat flux of up to 300Wcm2. Novel thermal solutions need to address system architectures, packaging, phosphors for light color conversion, and encapsulants and fillers for optical extraction. In this paper, the effect of thermal management on packaging architectures, phosphors, encapsulants, and system design are discussed. Additionally, discussions of microscopic defects due to packaging problems as well as chip active layer defects are presented through experimental and computational findings.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 2

Luxeon superflux LED package (2)

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Figure 3

Effect of temperature on the phosphor efficiency (normalized to room temperature)

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Figure 4

Temperature distribution for nine particles loaded with 3.33mW power (3)

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Figure 5

Temperature distribution on the two closely located particles (3)

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Figure 6

Temperature distribution for the LED package without coating (3)

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Figure 7

Temperature distribution for the LED package with coating (3)

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Figure 8

LED encapsulant evolution

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Figure 9

A generic power LED package

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Figure 10

Before and after thermal treatment of a cyclo-olefin lens

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Figure 11

Transmission spectra for high refractive index thermoplastics

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Figure 12

(a) Transmission losses in materials exposed to 405nm at 300mW. (b) Accelerated UV (250mW) and 125°C exposure for common LED lens materials.

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Figure 13

A conceptual LED package and components

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Figure 14

Temperature distribution of the conceptual package

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Figure 15

Temperature distribution between the chip and the cup

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Figure 16

Temperature distribution in the silicone filler and the lens

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Figure 17

Variation of the chip and lens temperatures versus LED drive level

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Figure 18

IR thermal image of a good contacted LED chip

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Figure 19

Temperature distribution of a defectively bonded chip obtained from IR thermal study

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Figure 20

IR thermal image versus microscopic image for defective part

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Figure 21

Typical temperature distribution in a LED light engine (nine chip on board LEDs, 1.7mm die center to center spacing)

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Figure 22

Thermal resistance networks: (a) typical; and (b) simplified

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Figure 23

Piezofan and heated surface

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Figure 24

A 0.5-in.-diameter synthetic jet for an HB LED package

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Figure 1

Typical 5mm LED package

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