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RESEARCH PAPERS

Design of Air and Liquid Cooling Systems for Electronic Components Using Concurrent Simulation and Experiment

[+] Author and Article Information
Tunc Icoz

 GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna NY 12309

Nitin Verma

 Rutgers University, Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Eng., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA

Yogesh Jaluria1

 Rutgers University, Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Eng., New Brunswick, NJ 08901

1

Corresponding author; jaluria@jove.rutgers.edu

J. Electron. Packag 128(4), 466-478 (Mar 27, 2006) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2353284 History: Received January 09, 2006; Revised March 27, 2006

The design of cooling systems for electronic equipment is getting more involved and challenging due to increase in demand for faster and more reliable electronic systems. Therefore, robust and more efficient design and optimization methodologies are required. Conventional approaches are based on sequential use of numerical simulation and experiment. Thus, they fail to use certain advantages of using both tools concurrently. The present study is aimed at combining simulation and experiment in a concurrent manner such that outputs of each approach drive the other to achieve better engineering design in a more efficient way. In this study, a relatively simple problem, involving heat transfer from multiple heat sources simulating electronic components and located in a horizontal channel, was investigated. Two experimental setups were fabricated for air and liquid cooling experiments to study the effects of different coolants. De-ionized water was used as the liquid coolant in one case and air in the other. The effects of separation distance and flow conditions on the heat transfer and on the fluid flow characteristics were investigated in detail for both coolants. Cooling capabilities of different cooling arrangements were compared and the results from simulations and experiments were combined to create response surfaces and to find the optimal values of the design parameters.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Two heating elements in a channel, simulating electronic components

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Figure 2

Experimental system and test

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Figure 3

Experimental system for liquid cooling section for air cooling

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Figure 4

Comparison of computed local Nu at the first source for forced convection at Re=750 without a vortex promoter

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Figure 12

Computed (a) temperature profiles, (b) axial velocity profiles, above the first heat source at Re=900 and d=2w for different heat source heights

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Figure 13

Local hc at Re=900 and d=2w along the top wall (a)hc1 and (b)hc2

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Figure 14

Numerical and experimental heat transfer rates as a function of Re and h∕H for d=2w(a) first heat source and (b) second heat source

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Figure 15

Numerical and experimental pressure drop as a function of Re and h∕H for d=2w

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Figure 16

Heat transfer rates response surfaces (a) first heat source and (b) second heat source

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Figure 17

Response surface of the pressure drop

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Figure 18

Response surface of the objective function F=W1Q1¯+W2Q2¯−W3ΔP¯, where W1=W2=W3

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Figure 19

Optimal values of (a) Re and (b)d, with h∕H for various objective functions

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Figure 21

Experimental results on Nuav for water as a function of Re for (a) first heat source, (b) second heat source

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Figure 22

Experimental heat transfer coefficient for water as a function of heat input and Re for (a) first heat source, (b) second heat source

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Figure 23

Comparison of experimental cooling capacities of natural convection in (a) air and (b) water

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Figure 5

Transient variations of Nu1 and Nu2 for d=2w(a,b)h=0.25H, and (c,d)h=0.35H

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Figure 6

Computed and measured heat transfer rates as functions of Re and d when h∕H=0.25 from (a) first heat source, and (b) second heat source

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Figure 7

Comparison of experimental velocity profile with the profile obtained using numerical simulation for U∞=0.45m∕s, Re=1500

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Figure 8

Local hc when h∕H=0.25 and d=2w of (a) first heat source and (b) second heat source

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Figure 9

Local hc when h∕H=0.25 and Re=600(a) first heat source and (b) second heat source

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Figure 10

Computational and experimental results of ΔP

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Figure 11

Streamlines at Re=900 and d=2w when (a)h∕H=0.15, (b)h∕H=0.25, and (c) h∕H=0.35

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Figure 20

Response surface of the objective function F=W1Q1¯+W2Q2¯−W3ΔP¯−W4S¯ where W1=W2=W3=W4

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