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RESEARCH PAPERS

Isothermal Mechanical Durability of Three Selected PB-Free Solders: Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu, Sn3.5Ag, and Sn0.7Cu

[+] Author and Article Information
Qian Zhang1

CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center-Mechanical Engineering Department,  University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

Abhijit Dasgupta

CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center-Mechanical Engineering Department,  University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

Peter Haswell2

CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center-Mechanical Engineering Department,  University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

1

Currently with Dell Inc.

2

Currently with Hamilton Sundstrand Corp.

J. Electron. Packag 127(4), 512-522 (May 03, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2056569 History: Received February 19, 2004; Revised May 03, 2005

This study is motivated by the urgent need in the electronics industry for mechanical properties and durability of Pb-free solders because the use of Pb will be banned in the EU by July 1, 2006. The isothermal mechanical durability of three NEMI recommended Pb-free solders, 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu, 96.5Sn-3.5Ag, and 99.3Sn-0.7Cu, is tested on the thermo-mechanical-microscale (TMM) setup under two test conditions: room temperature and relatively high strain rate, and high temperature and low strain rate. The test data are presented in a power law relationship between three selected damage metrics (total strain range, inelastic strain range, and cyclic work density) to 50% load drop. The obtained mechanical durability models of three Pb-free solders are compared with those of the eutectic 63Sn-37Pb solder at the two selected test conditions and at the same homologous temperature of 0.75. The results of this study can be used for virtual qualification of Pb-free electronics during design and development of electronics under mechanical loading.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

TMM specimen schematic

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Figure 2

Optical and ESEM micrographs of a 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder specimen

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Figure 4

A typical hysteresis loop plotted with engineering stress (96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder)

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Figure 5

Cyclic durability test matrix

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Figure 6

Effects of percentage of load drop on the durability model (96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder test results for regime 1)

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Figure 7

25°C, 3.3E-2 1∕s strain rate cyclic fatigue data, 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder

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Figure 8

125°C, 4.4E-4 1∕s strain rate cyclic fatigue data, 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder

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Figure 9

25°C, 2.9E-2 1∕s strain rate cyclic fatigue data, 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder

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Figure 10

128°C, 4.5E-4 1∕s strain rate cyclic fatigue data, 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder

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Figure 11

25°C, 3.6E-2 1∕s strain rate cyclic fatigue data, 99.3Sn-0.7Cu solder

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Figure 12

132°C, 4.9E-4 1∕s strain rate cyclic fatigue data, 99.3Sn-0.7Cu solder

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Figure 13

Comparison of regime 1 and regime 2 results: 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder, work-based (W) and inelastic strain range-based (ISR) damage relation

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Figure 14

Comparison of regime 1 and regime 2 results: 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder, work-based (W) and inelastic strain range-based (ISR) damage relation

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Figure 15

Comparison of regime 1 and regime 2 results: 99.3Sn-0.7Cu solder, work-based (W) and inelastic strain range-based (ISR) damage relation

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Figure 16

Work-based damage relation comparison of four solder alloys at room temperature

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Figure 17

ISR-based damage relation comparison of four solder alloys at room temperature

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Figure 18

Work-based damage relation comparison of four solder alloys at high temperature

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Figure 19

ISR-based damage relation comparison of four solder alloys at high temperature

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Figure 20

Work-based damage relation comparison of four solder alloys at same homologous temperature (0.75)

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Figure 21

ISR-based damage relation comparison of four solder alloys at same homologous temperature (0.75)

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Figure 22

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder joint (25°C, 2.0% inelastic strain range control, 2.6E-2 1∕s shear strain rate, 80% total load drop)

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Figure 23

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder joint (125°C, 7.9% inelastic strain range control, 4.5E-4 s-1 shear strain rate, 55% total load drop)

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Figure 24

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder joint (125°C, 7.9% inelastic strain range control, 4.5E-4 s-1 shear strain rate, 55% total load drop)

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Figure 25

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 99.3Sn-0.7Cu solder joint (132°C, 2.8% inelastic strain range control, 4.7E-4 1∕s shear strain rate, 80% total load drop)

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Figure 26

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 99.3Sn-0.7Cu solder joint (132°C, 8.5% inelastic strain range control, 5.2E-4 1∕s shear strain rate, 80% total load drop)

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Figure 27

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu (25°C, 1.0% inelastic strain range control, 3.2E-2 s-1 shear strain rate, 53% total load drop)

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Figure 28

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder joint (25°C, 2.6% inelastic strain range control, 3.1E-2 s-1 shear strain rate, 80% total load drop)

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Figure 29

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 99.3Sn-0.7Cu solder joint (25°C, 4.7% inelastic strain range control, 3.9E-2 s-1 shear strain rate, 80% total load drop)

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Figure 30

Posttest ESEM micrograph of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder joint (25°C, 4.7% inelastic strain range control, 3.2E-2 s-1 shear strain rate, 80% total load drop)

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