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RESEARCH PAPERS

Modeling of Interfacial Delamination in Plastic IC Packages Under Hygrothermal Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew A. Tay

Nano/Micro Systems Packaging Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering,  National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576mpetayao@nus.edu.sg

J. Electron. Packag 127(3), 268-275 (Jul 28, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1938209 History: Received July 22, 2004; Revised July 28, 2004

Ever since the discovery of the “popcorn” failure of plastic-encapsulated integrated-circuit (IC) packages in the 1980s, much effort has been devoted to understanding the failure mechanism and modeling it. It has been established that such failures are due to the combined effects of thermal stresses and hygrostresses that arise during solder reflow of plastic IC packages. In recent years interfacial fracture mechanics has been applied successfully to the analysis of delamination or crack propagation along interfaces in plastic IC packages. This paper presents some fundamental aspects of interfacial fracture mechanics and describes some of the numerical techniques available for calculating the strain energy release rate and mode mixity at the tips of cracks at interfaces in plastic-encapsulated IC packages. A method of calculating the combined effects of thermal stress and hygrostress on the energy release rate is also described. Some case studies are presented that illustrate how the techniques are applied to predicting delaminaton in IC packages. Some experimental verification of predictive methodology is also presented.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

A crack along a bimaterial interface

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Figure 2

Typical variation of Gc(ψ) with ψ

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Figure 5

Mesh of quarter-point elements around crack tip

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Figure 6

Determination of tan ψ by extrapolation

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Figure 7

Prediction of delamination temperature

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Figure 8

Delamination propagation of 85°C∕60%RH preconditioned packages during solder reflow

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Figure 9

Schematic diagram of the finite element model

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Figure 18

Energy release rate G (left crack tip) with right crack tip at 0 and 20μm from corner

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Figure 19

Phase angle (left crack tip, r̂=10μm) with right crack tip at 0 and 20μm from corner

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Figure 20

Values of G calculated using variable order boundary element method and virtual crack closure method

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Figure 3

Variation of Gc with ψ, T and C

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Figure 4

Mesh of four-noded elements around crack tip

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Figure 10

Variation of Ktot along die-attach layer

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Figure 11

Variation of SIF with crack length

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Figure 12

Variation of mode mixity with crack length

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Figure 13

Model of cross section of IC package

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Figure 14

Energy release rate G at different crack lengths and positions

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Figure 15

Phase angle (r̂=10μm) at different crack lengths and positions

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Figure 16

Energy release rate G (right crack tip) at different crack lengths and positions

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Figure 17

Phase angle (right crack tip, r̂=10μm) at different crack lengths and positions

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