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RESEARCH PAPERS

Low Cycle Fatigue Testing of Ball Grid Array Solder Joints under Mixed-Mode Loading Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Tae-Sang Park

 Mechatronics & Manufacturing Technology Center, Corporate Technology Operations, Samsung Electronics Co., LTD, 416, Maetan-3Dong, Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon-City, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-742, Koreataesang.park@samsung.com

Soon-Bok Lee

CARE-Electronic Packaging Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Koreasblee@kaist.ac.kr

J. Electron. Packag 127(3), 237-244 (May 26, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1871192 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised May 26, 2004

To give a proper and accurate estimation of the fatigue life of ball grid array (BGA) solder joints, a mechanical fatigue test method under mixed-mode loading is proposed. Experiments were conducted with 63Sn37Pb and Sn3.5Ag0.75Cu solder joints in room temperature. The mechanical low cycle fatigue tests were performed under several loading angles. The loading angle is controlled by several grips which have specific surface angle to the loading direction. Constant displacement controlled tests are performed using a micro-mechanical test apparatus. It was found that the normal deformation significantly affects the fatigue life of the solder joint. Throughout the whole test conditions at room temperature, Sn3.5Ag0.75Cu solder alloy had longer fatigue life than 63Sn37Pb alloy. Failure patterns of the fatigue tests were observed and discussed. A morrow energy model was examined and found to be a proper low cycle fatigue model for solder joints under mixed mode loading condition.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Schematic diagram and (b) photograph of the constructed micromechanical testing system

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Figure 2

(a) Fr-4 substrate dimensions (mm), (b) schematic diagram, and (c) photograph of a specimen

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Figure 3

Reflow temperature profile

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Figure 4

Optical image of microstructure of (a) 63Sn/37Pb and (b) Sn/3.5Ag/0.75Cu

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Figure 5

Test grip configurations. Loading angle of each specimen is (a) 0deg (pure tension), (b) 27deg, (c) 45deg, (d) 63deg, (e) 90deg (pure shear)

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Figure 6

AC LVDT and grips for measuring the relative displacement between specimen grips

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Figure 7

Performance curve of the testing system at displacement control: (a) displacement versus time and (b) force versus time profile

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Figure 8

Force-displacement hysteresis under loading angle 90deg

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Figure 9

Force versus displacement of Sn/3.5Ag/0.75Cu solder joints (at ±10μm displacement stroke)

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Figure 10

Material behavior of 63Sn∕37Pb and Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu: (a) loading angle 0deg, (b) loading angle 45deg, and (c) loading angle 90deg

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Figure 11

Monotonic tension test of 63Sn∕37Pb and Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu under loading angle 0deg and loading angle 90deg

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Figure 12

SEM photographs of monotonic tension test of 63Sn∕37Pb solder joint under (a) loading angle 0deg and (b) loading angle 90deg and Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu under (c) loading angle 0deg and (d) loading angle 90deg

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Figure 13

Applied force decreases as cycle increases: (a) loading angle 0deg, (b) loading angle 45deg, (c) loading angle 90deg for Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu at ±10μm displacement stroke

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Figure 14

Cyclic behavior of Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu at ±10μm displacement stroke (90deg loading angle)

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Figure 15

Load drop parameter versus cycles of Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu alloy under the loading angle of 90deg

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Figure 16

Fatigue life versus displacement range for Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu, for different load drop definitions of failure (a) loading angle 0deg, (b) loading angle 45deg, and (c) loading angle 90deg

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Figure 17

A typical resistance versus cycles curve and corresponding load drop curve as cycle increases (loading angle 45deg)

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Figure 18

Photographs of (a) cross-sectional view of the failure path and substrate pads after (b) 70% load drop under loading angle 0deg, (c) 50% load drop and (d) 90% load drop of Sn/3.5Ag/0.75Cu solder joint under loading angle 90deg

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Figure 19

Fatigue life versus displacement range for Sn∕3.5Ag∕0.75Cu by 50% load drop

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Figure 20

Fatigue life versus displacement range for 63Sn∕37Pb by 50% load drop

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Figure 21

Fatigue life versus strain energy density

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