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RESEARCH PAPERS

Failure Modes of Flip Chip Solder Joints Under High Electric Current Density

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Basaran

Electronic Packaging Laboratory,  University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New Yorkcjb@buffalo.edu

H. Ye, D. C. Hopkins

Electronic Packaging Laboratory,  University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York

D. Frear, J. K. Lin

 Freescale semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona

J. Electron. Packag 127(2), 157-163 (Sep 15, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1898338 History: Received December 22, 2003; Revised September 15, 2004

The failure modes of flip chip solder joints under high electrical current density are studied experimentally. Three different failure modes are reported. Only one of the failure modes is caused by the combined effect of electromigration and thermomigration, where void nucleation and growth contribute to the ultimate failure of the module. The Ni under bump metallization–solder joint interface is found to be the favorite site for void nucleation and growth. The effect of pre-existing voids on the failure mechanism of a solder joint is also investigated

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Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic cross section of the test vehicle module

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Figure 2

Secondary SEM of M33 after failure: solder joint B

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Figure 3

Failure in the Al trace and Si die, (a) M4, solder joint A, (b) M7, solder joint A

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Figure 4

Secondary SEM of M5, solder joint B, (a) initial, (b) after failure

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Figure 5

Secondary SEM, (a) M34, solder joint A, 95h before failure, (b) M42, solder joint A, 2h before failure

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Figure 6

Secondary SEM of M12, solder joint A: 36h

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Figure 7

Secondary SEM of M42, solder joint A: 178h

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Figure 8

Secondary SEM of M34, solder joint A, (a) 268h, (b) 444h

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Figure 9

Secondary SEM of M56 solder A, (a) initial, (b) 1267h

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Figure 10

Backscatter SEM of M56 solder A: initial

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Figure 11

Secondary SEM of M41 solder A, (a) initial, (b) failure after 61h

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Figure 12

Backscatter SEM M8 solder A (L), initial, (R) 149h

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