hadiabatic and umax′

[+] Author and Article Information
Robert J. Moffat

Stanford University, Stanford, CA (Emeritus)

J. Electron. Packag 126(4), 501-509 (Jan 24, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1827265 History: Received May 10, 2004; Revised October 05, 2004; Online January 24, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Arvizu, D. E., and Moffat, R. J., 1982, “The Use of Superposition in Calculating Cooling Requirements for Circuit-Board-Mounted Electronic Components,” Proc. of 32nd Electronic Components Conference, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, pp. 133–144.
Moffat,  R. J., 1998, “What’s New in Convective Heat Transfer?” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 19(2), pp. 90–101.
Sellars,  R. J., Tribus,  M., and Kline,  J. S., 1956, Trans. ASME, 78, pp. 441–448.
Moffat, R. J., 2001, “The Use of hadiabatic in Electronics Cooling and Other Applications,” Proc. of 7th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems: THERMINIC 2001, Paris, Sept, IEEE, New York.
Gauche, P., 2001, Using FLOTHERM and the Command Center to Exploit the Principle of Superposition (personal communication).
Anderson, A., and Moffat, R. J., 1990, “Convective Heat Transfer from Arrays of Modules with Non-Uniform Heating: Experiments and Models,” Thermosciences Division Research Report HMT-43, Stanford University.
Moffat, R. J., Arvizu, D. E., and Ortega, A., “Cooling Electronic Components: Forced Convection Experiments With an Air-Cooled Array,” Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment—1985, ASME, New York, ASME HTD—Vol. 48, pp. 17–28.
Wong,  H., and Peck,  R. E., 2001, “Experimental Evaluation of Air-Cooling Electronics at High Altitudes,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 123, pp. 356–365.
Moffat,  R. J., and Anderson,  A. M., 1990, “Applying Heat Transfer Coefficient Data to Electronics Cooling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 112, pp. 882–890.
Anderson,  A., and Moffat,  R. J., 1992, “The Adiabatic Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Superposition Kernel Function: Part I—Data for Arrays of Flat-Packs for Different Flow Conditions,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 114, 14–21.
Maciejewski,  P. K., and Moffat,  R. J., 1992, “Heat Transfer With Very High Free-Stream Turbulence—Part I: Experimental Data,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 114(4), pp. 827–833.
Maciejewski,  P. K., and Moffat,  R. J., 1992, “Heat Transfer With Very High Free-Stream Turbulence—Part II: Analysis of Results,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 114(4), pp. 834–839.
Rhee, J., Danek, C. J., and Moffat, R. J., 1993, “The Adiabatic Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Faces of a Cube in an Electronics Cooling Situation,” Proc. of 1993 ASME International Electronics Packaging Conference, Binghamton, NY, Sept, ASME, New York.
Maciejewski,  P. K., and Anderson,  A. M., 1996, “Elements of a General Correlation for Turbulent Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 287–293.
Denninger,  M. J., and Anderson,  A. M., 1999, “An Experimental Study on the Relationship Between Velocity Fluctuations and Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Air Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121(2), pp. 288–295.
Anderson, A. M., and Maciejewski, P. K., 1999, “The Local Variable Model for Turbulent Heat Transfer,” Proc. 33rd National Heat Transfer Conf., Aug, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Ooi,  A., Iaccarino,  G., Durbin,  P. A., and Behnia,  M., 2002, “Reynolds Averaged Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Ribbed Ducts,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 23, pp. 750–757.
Hacker,  J. M., and Eaton,  J. K., 1997, “Measurements of Heat Transfer in a Separated and Re-Attaching Flow With Spatially Varying Thermal Boundary Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 18, pp. 131–141.
Batchelder,  K. A., and Eaton,  J. K., 2001, “Practical Experience With the Discrete Green’s Function Approach to Convective Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123, pp. 70–76.
Ramanathan, S., and Ortega, A., 1996, “A Uniform Flow Effective Diffusivity Approach for Conjugate Forced Convection From a Discrete Rectangular Source on a Thin Conducting Plate,” Paper 0-7803-3325-X, Intersociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena, ITHERM.
Li, Y., and Ortega, A., 1998, “Forced Convection From a Rectangular Heat Source in Uniform Shear Flow: The Conjugate Peclet Number in the Thin Plate Limit,” Paper 0-7803-4475-8/98, Intersociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena, ITHERM.
Moffat, R. J., 2002, “Getting the Most out of Your CFD Program,” ITHERM 2002, 8th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems May 29–June 1, San Diego.


Grahic Jump Location
Arrangement of a typical single-active-element test for measuring the heat transfer coefficient. From Ref. 2.
Grahic Jump Location
When the upstream components are also heated, the air is hotter near the considered wall. From Ref. 2.
Grahic Jump Location
Smoke wire visualization of the flow over and around an array of elements. From Ref. 5.
Grahic Jump Location
Both hmean and hadiabatic are invariant with power level when the power is uniform. From Ref. 2.
Grahic Jump Location
The value of hmean on the considered component goes down sharply when the power applied to that component goes down with the rest of the array held at uniform power. From Ref. 2.
Grahic Jump Location
Energy balance terms for active components. From Ref. 4.
Grahic Jump Location
Approximate stratification factors for flat-pack components downwind of a single heated row. Data from Ref. 6.
Grahic Jump Location
Results calculated from Eq. 20
Grahic Jump Location
Stanton number versus Reynolds number with turbulence intensity up to 55%. From Ref. 11.
Grahic Jump Location
Values of h from Fig. 9 plotted against the value of u′ in the free-stream. From Ref. 12.
Grahic Jump Location
The fluctuation Stanton number, St′ , becomes constant above turbulence intensity, Tu, of 15%. Data collected from 6 sources. From Ref. 12.
Grahic Jump Location
Electronics cooling data from several sources are well correlated as a function of the estimated maximum sustainable turbulence. From Ref. 9.
Grahic Jump Location
Different turbulence closures yield significantly different distributions of h. From Ref. 17.




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