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RESEARCH PAPER

Design of Cooling Systems for Electronic Equipment Using Both Experimental and Numerical Inputs

[+] Author and Article Information
Tunc Icoz, Yogesh Jaluria

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903

J. Electron. Packag 126(4), 465-471 (Jan 24, 2005) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1827262 History: Received April 27, 2004; Revised May 31, 2004; Online January 24, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Incropera,  F. P., 1988, “Convection Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment Cooling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110, pp. 1097–1111.
Incropera, F. P., and Ramadhyani, S., 1994, Application of Channel Flows to Single-Phase Liquid Cooling of Chips and Multi-Chip Modules, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
Sathe,  S., and Sammakia,  B., 1998, “A Review of Recent Developments in Some Practical Aspects of Air-Cooled Electronic Packages,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120, pp. 830–839.
Jaluria, Y., 1998, Design and Optimization of Thermal Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Papanicolaou,  E., and Jaluria,  Y., 1994, “Mixed Convection From Simulated Electronic Components at Varying Relative Positions in a Cavity,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116, pp. 960–970.
Rahman,  M. M., and Raghavan,  J., 1999, “Transient Response of Protruding Electronic Modules Exposed to Horizontal Cross Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20, pp. 48–59.
Papanicolaou,  E., and Jaluria,  Y., 1992, “Transition to a Periodic Regime in Mixed Convection in a Square Cavity,” J. Fluid Mech., 239, pp. 489–509.
Ghaddar,  N. K., Korczak,  K. Z., and Mikic,  B. B., 1986, “Numerical Investigation of Incompressible Flow in Grooved Channels. Part 1: Stability and Self-Sustained Oscillations,” J. Fluid Mech., 163, pp. 99–127.
Nigen,  S. J., and Amon,  C. H., 1994, “Time-Dependent Conjugate Heat Transfer Characteristics of Self-Sustained Oscillatory Flows in a Grooved Channel,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 116, pp. 499–507.
Tewari,  S. S., and Jaluria,  Y., 1990, “Mixed Convection Heat Transfer From Thermal Sources Mounted on Horizontal and Vertical Surfaces,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 112, pp. 975–987.
Nakayama,  W., and Park,  S. H., 1996, “Conjugate Heat Transfer From a Single Surface-Mounted Block to Forced Convective Air Flow in a Channel,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 301–309.
Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, New York.
Wang,  Q., and Jaluria,  Y., 2002, “Instability and Heat Transfer in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Duct With Discrete Heat Sources,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 42, pp. 445–463.
Kim,  S. Y., Kang,  B. H., and Jaluria,  Y., 1998, “Thermal Interaction Between Isolated Heated Electronic Components in Pulsating Channel Flow,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 34, pp. 1–21.
Wang,  Q., Yoo,  H., and Jaluria,  Y., 2003, “Convection in a Horizontal Rectangular Duct Under Constant and Variable Property Formulations,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46, pp. 297–310.
Kim,  S. Y., Kang,  B. H., and Hyun,  J. M., 1998, “Forced Convection Heat Transfer From Two Heated Blocks in Pulsating Channel Flow for Electronics Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41, pp. 625–634.
Kang,  B., Jaluria,  Y., and Tewari,  S., 1990, “Mixed Convection Transport From an Isolated Heat Source Module on a Horizontal Plate,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 112, pp. 653–661.
Gupta,  A., and Jaluria,  Y., 1998, “Forced Convective Liquid Cooling of Arrays of Protruding Heated Elements Mounted in a Rectangular Duct,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 120, pp. 243–252.
Zhao, H., Icoz, T., Jaluria, Y., and Knight, D., 2004, “Data Driven Design Optimization Methodology—Part I,” 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, AIAA Paper No. 2004-448.

Figures

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Forced air cooling of an electronic system consisting of three electronic components mounted on the walls
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Schematic representation of the experiment setup
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Calculated streamlines in the flow over two heat sources at Re=900 and Gr=7.2×105 when separation distance is (a) w, (b) 2w, and (c) 3w
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Nuav as a function of Re for different separation distances when Gr=7.2×105 for (a) 1st heat source and (b) 2nd heat source
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Nondimensional temperature field at Gr=7.2×105 and (a) Re=300, (b) Re=900
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The temperature distributions on the fluid-solid interface with different size heat sources, but with the same heat generation: W1=1 and W2=2 in the top figure; the values are reversed in the bottom figure, where W is the width of square shaped sources, at Re=500 and Gr=106
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Stability diagram for mixed convection flow in a cavity similar to the one shown in Fig. 2 for transition from steady to oscillatory flow
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The stability diagram for mixed convection flow through a horizontal channel with width to height ratio of 10. L and T stand for longitudinal and transverse rolls, respectively.
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Experimentally measured variation of array-averaged Nusselt number with the Reynolds number for heat inputs of 7 W and 10 W and for a streamwise spacing of 11 mm between sources for (a) H/B=1.5 and (b) H/B=1.75
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Variation of heat source temperature with Re for heat inputs of (a) 1700 W/m2 , (b) 2400 W/m2 , and (c) 3100 W/m2
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Calculated and measured total heat transfer rates as a function of Re
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Data Driven Design Optimization Methodology
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Mixed convection flow in a horizontal and a vertical channel with isolated electronic components on the walls

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