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RESEARCH PAPER

Behavior of Lead-Free Solder Under Thermomechanical Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. Wei, C. L. Chow

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan

K. J. Lau

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

P. Vianco, H. E. Fang

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

J. Electron. Packag 126(3), 367-373 (Oct 06, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1773197 History: Received December 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004; Online October 06, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Solomon,  H. D., and Tolksdorf,  E. D., 1995, “Energy Approach to the Fatigue of 60/40 Solder: Part 1-Influence of Temperature and Cycle Frequency,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 117, pp. 130–135.
Guo,  Q., Cutiongco,  E. C., Keer,  L. M., and Fine,  M. E., 1992, “Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Prediction of 63Sn/37Pb Solder,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 114, pp. 145–151.
McDowell, D. L., Miller, M. P., and Brooks, D. C., 1994, “A Unified Creep-Plasticity Theory for Solder Alloys,” Fatigue of Electronic Materials, ASTM STP 1153, pp. 42–59.
Kariya,  Y., and Otsuka,  M., 1998, “Mechanical Fatigue Characteristics of Sn-3.5Ag-X (X=Bi, Cu, Zn and In) Solder Alloys,” J. Electron. Mater., 27, pp. 1229–1235.
Whitelaw,  R. S., Neu,  R. W., and Scott,  D. T., 1999, “Deformation Behavior of Two Lead-Free Solders: Indalloy 227 and Castin Alloy,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 121, pp. 99–107.
Plumbridge,  W. J., 1999, “Materials Behavior and the Reliability in Performance of Solder Joints,” Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, 11, pp. 8–11.
Ren,  W., Qian,  Z., Lu,  S., and Shangguan,  D., 1999, “Investigation of a New Lead-Free Solder Alloy Using Thin Strip Specimens,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 121, pp. 271–274.
Frear,  D. R., Burchett,  S. N., Neilsen,  M. K., and Stephens,  J. J., 1997, “Microstructurally Based Finite Element Simulation of Solder Joint Behavior,” Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, 2, pp. 39–42.
Wei,  Y., and Chow,  C. L., 2001, “A Damage-Coupled TMF Constitutive Model for Solder Alloy,” Int. J. Damage Mech., 10(2), pp. 133–152.
Wei,  Y., Chow,  C. L., Neilsen,  M. K., and Fang,  H. E., 2002, “Failure Analysis of Solder Joints with a Damage-Coupled Viscoplastic Model,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 56, pp. 2199–2211.

Figures

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Tensile tests for three strain rates at 25°C
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Tensile tests for three strain rates at 100°C
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Isothermal cyclic tests for three strain rates at 25°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Isothermal cyclic tests for three strain rates at 100°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Normalized Young’s modulus change for 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder
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Equivalent damage evolution for 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder
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Isothermal cyclic response for strain rate of 10−5/s at 25°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Isothermal cyclic response for strain rate of 10−5/s at 100°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Simulation for isothermal cyclic response for three strain rates at 25°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Simulation for isothermal cyclic response for three strain rates at 100°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Isothermal and thermomechanical cyclic tests at strain rate of 10−5/s (stable hysteresis loop)
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In-phase thermomechanical cyclic response at strain rate of 10−5/s from 25°C to 100°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Simulation for isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical cyclic response at strain rate of 10−5/s from 25°C to 100°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Simulation for in-phase and out-of-phase thermomechanical cyclic response at strain rate of 10−5/s from 25°C to 100°C (stable hysteresis loop)
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Elements around notches
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Shear stress distributions
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Equivalent damage distributions

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