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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Mechanical Characterization of the Heat Affected Zone of Gold Wirebonds Using Nanoindentation

[+] Author and Article Information
Mithilesh Shah

Singapore-MIT Alliance, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Kaiyang Zeng

Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore

Andrew A. O. Tay

Dept. of Mechanical Eng., National University of Singapore, Singapore

J. Electron. Packag 126(1), 87-93 (Apr 30, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1648062 History: Received October 01, 2003; Online April 30, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Tay, A. A. O., Seah, B. C., and Ong, S. H., 1997, “Finite Element Simulation of Wire Looping During Wirebonding,” Advances in Electronic Packaging 1997, Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME International Intersociety Electronic and Photonic Packaging Conference, INTERpack ’97, Vol. 1, pp. 399–406.
Shaw, M. C., 1973, Science of Hardness Testing and Its Research Applications, American Society of Metals, J. H. Westbrook and H. Conrad, eds., pp. 1–15.
Simons,  Ch., Shrapler,  L., and Herklotz,  G., 2000, “Doped and Low-Alloyed Gold Bonding Wires,” Gold Bull. (Geneva), 33(3), pp. 89–96.
Donthu, S. K., 2001, “Self-Annealing in Electroplated Copper Films,” M.Eng. thesis, Singapore-MIT Alliance, National University of Singapore.
Baker, S. P., 1993, “The Analysis of Depth-Sensing Indentation Data,” Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 308, pp. 209–216.
Properties and Selection: Non Ferrous Alloys and Special Purpose Materials, Metals Handbook, 1990, ASM International, 10th Ed.
Suresh,  S., Nieh,  T. G., and Choi,  B. W., 1999, “Nanoindentation of Copper Thin Films on Silicon Substrate,” Scr. Mater., 41(9), pp. 951–957.
Gane,  N., 1970, “The Direct Measurement of the Strength of Metals on a Sub-Micrometer Scale,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 317A(1530), pp. 367–391.
Ohno, Y., Ohzeki, Y., Aso, T., and Kitamura, O., 1992, “Factors Governing the Loop Profile,” Proceedings, 42nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 899–902.
Pecht, M., 1998, Electronic Packaging Materials and Their Properties, CRC Press.
Dieter, G., 1988, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw Hill.
Tabor, D., 1951, The Hardness of Metals, Oxford press.
Oliver,  W. C., and Pharr,  G. M., 1992, “An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments,” J. Mater. Res., 7, pp. 1564–1583.

Figures

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Mass spectrum of the gold wire specimen analyzed using TOF-SIMS
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Graph depicting the heat flow during DSC against temperature for gold wire specimen
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A typical Load-Depth curve for an indentation with maximum 11 mN load. The indentation is of multiple load-partial unload type.
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Hardness variation with depth for 3 mN maximum load
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Hardness variation with depth for 5 mN maximum load
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Hardness variation with depth for 7 mN maximum load
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Hardness variation with depth for 9 mN maximum load
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Hardness variation with depth for 11 mN maximum load
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Hardness variation with depth for 15 mN maximum load
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Hardness variation with depth for 20 mN maximum load
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The hardness variation with distance from the neck of the ball in gold wirebond
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Microstructure of Heat affected zone showing grain size distribution (500X)
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The suggested yield strength variation with distance from the neck of the ball
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A generalized HRB diagram showing variation of HAZ length with different ball sizes for wires with different recrystallization temperatures

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