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TECHNICAL BRIEFS

3D Nonlinear Stress Analysis of Tin Whisker Initiation on Lead-Free Components

[+] Author and Article Information
John H. Lau

Agilent Technologies, Inc., 5301 Stevens Creek Boulevard, Santa Clara, CA 95052

Stephen H. Pan

Optimal Corporation, 6980 Santa Teresa Blvd, Suite 100, San Jose, CA 95119

J. Electron. Packag 125(4), 621-624 (Dec 15, 2003) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1604805 History: Received October 01, 2002; Online December 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

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Xu, Chen, Zhang, Y., Fan, C., and Abys, J., 2002, “Understand Whisker Phenomenon: The Driving Force for Whisker Formation,” www.circuitree.com, pp. 94–104.
Choi, W., Lee, T., Tu, K., Tamura, N., Celestre, R., MacDowell, A., Bong, Y., Nguyen, L., and Sheng, G., 2002, “Structure and Kinetics of Sn Whisker Growth on Pb-free Solder Finish,” Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 628–633.
Kawanaka,  R., Fujiwara,  K., Nango,  S., and Hasegawa,  T., 1983, “Influence of Impurities on the Growth on Tin Whiskers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1, 22, pp. 917–921.
Endo, M., Higuchi, S., Tokuda, Y., and Sakabe, Y., 1997, “Elimination of Whisker Growth on Tin Plated Electrodes,” Proceedings of International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, pp. 305–311.
Harris, P., 1994, “The Growth of Tin Whiskers,” International Tin Research Institute, Report No. 734.
Lee,  B. Z., and Lee,  D. N., 1998, “Spontaneous Growth Mechanism of Tin Whiskers,” Acta Mater., 46, pp. 3701–3714.
Tu,  K. N., 1994, “Irreversible Processed of Spontaneous Whisker Growth in Bimetallic Cu-Sn Thin-Film Reactions,” Phys. Rev. B, 49, pp. 2030–2034.
Chang,  C. Y., and Vook,  R. W., 1993, “The Effect of Surface Aluminum Oxide Films on Thermally Induced Hillock Formation,” Thin Solid Films, 228, pp. 205–302.
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Schetty, R., 2002, “Tin Whisker Study—Experimentation and Mechanistic Understanding,” Proceedings of AESF-SUF/FIN Conference, pp. 7–17.
Tin Whiskers: Lead-Free, Whiskerless Tin, 2002, http://rf.rfglobalnet.com/library/applicationNotes/files/5/whiskers/htmEliminating.
Van Westerhuyzen, D., Backes, P., Linder, J., Merrell, S., and Poeschel, R., 1992, “Tin Whisker Induced Failure in Vacuum,” Proceedings of International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, pp. 407–412.
Lin, M. C., 1984, “Tin Whisker Growth on IC Lead Finish—A Review,” AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum: TM52221-840709-01.
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Lau, J. H., and Pao, Y. H., 1997, Solder Joint Reliability of BGA, CSP, Flip Chip, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Focused ion beam (FIB) images taken at various stages of cutting through a matte Sn whisker on a Cu substrate
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of tin whisker formation mechanisms
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Schematic drawing of the axisymmetric structure for analysis
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Finite element model for analysis (a 7-MPa compression is applied in the Sn layer)
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Displacement vector plot (tin whisker initiated)
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Hydrostatic stress contour
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von Mises equivalent stress contour

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