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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Solders Fatigue Prediction Using Interfacial Boundary Volume Criterion

[+] Author and Article Information
X. J. Zhao, J. F. J. M. Caers

CFT-AP/Philips Electronics Singapore, 620A, Lorong 1 Toa Payoh, 319762, Singapore

G. Q. Zhang

CFT/Philips, P.O. Box 218, 5600 MD Eindhoven, The Netherlands

L. J. Ernst

Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

J. Electron. Packag 125(4), 582-588 (Dec 15, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1604160 History: Received November 01, 2002; Online December 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Solomon,  H. D., and Tolksdorf,  E. D., 1995, “Energy Approach to the Fatigue of 60/40 Solder. Part 1: Influence of Temperature and Cycle Frequency,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 117, pp. 130–135.
Solomon,  H. D., and Tolksdorf,  E. D., 1996, “Energy Approach to the Fatigue of 60/40 Solder. Part 2: Influence of Bold Time and Asymmetric Loading,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 118, pp. 67–71.
Akay,  H. U., Paydar,  N. H., and Bilgic,  A., 1997, “Fatigue Life Predictions for Thermally Loaded Solder Joints Using a Volume-Weighted Averaging Technique,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 119, pp. 228–234.
Akay, H. U., Zhang, H., and Paydan, N. H., “Experimental Correlation of an Energy-Based Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Solder Joints,” 1997, Advances in Electronic Packaging, ASME-EEP-19-2, pp. 1567–1574.
Lee,  W. W., Nguyen,  L. T., and Selvaduray,  G. S., 2000, “Solder Joint Fatigue Models: Review and Applicability to Chip Scale Packages,” Microelectron. Reliab., 40, pp. 231–244.
Wong,  B., Helling,  D. E., and Clark,  R. W., 1988, “A Creep-Rupture Model for Two-Phase Eutectic Solders,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids & Manufacturing Technology, 11, pp. 284–290.
Darveaux, R., et al., 1997, “Solder Joint Fatigue Life Model,” Proc. of the TMS, Orlando, FL, pp. 213–218.
Darveaux, R., 2000, “Effect of Simulation Methodology on Solder Joint Crack Growth Correlation,” IEEE 50th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 1048–1058.
Rafanell,  A. J., 1992, “Ramberg-Osgood Parameters for 63/37 Sn/Pb Solder,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 114, pp. 234–238.
Shine, M. C., and Fox, L. R., 1987, “Fatigue of Solder Joints in Surface Mount Devices, Low Cycle Fatigue,” ASTM Special Technical Publication 942, pp. 588–610.
Syed, A. R., “A Review of Finite Element Methods for Solder Joint Analysis,” 1996 Proceedings of Experimental/Numerical Mechanics in Electronic Packaging, Semiconductors, Vol. 1, pp. 117–125.
Syed, Amkor, 2001, “Predicting Solder Joint Reliability for Thermal, Power, & Bend Cycle Within 25% Accuracy,” IEEE 51st Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 255–263.
Caers, J. F. J. M., Zhao, X. J., and Zhang, G. Q., 2001, “Exploring the Limits of Wafer Level CSP Assemblies on FR-4 Printed Boards,” APACK Conference, Singapore, pp. 125–131.
Zhao,  X. J. , 2000, “An Integrated System for Prediction and Analysis of Solder Interconnection Shapes,” IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, 23, pp. 9–16.
Akay,  H. U., Zhang,  H., and Paydar,  N. H., 1997, “Experimental Correlation of an Energy-Based Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Solders Joints,” Advances in Electronic Packaging, ASME-EEP, 19, pp. 1567–1574.
Engelmaier, W., 1991, Solder Joint Reliability, Theory and Applications, Edited by J. H. Lau, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 545–587.

Figures

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Procedure to determine and apply the fatigue life model
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Fatigue life in the T-shock test versus component size for two different ratios of solder land size at PCB to resist opening at the component side
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Cross section of solder joint after the T-shock tests
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Cross section of solder joint before the T-shock test
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Loading profile in the modeling
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Generation of solder geometry
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FEM model for CSP with 7×7 M solder joints
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Equivalent plastic strain distribution at the end of the second cycle in the solder joints
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Plastic strain distribution in the boundary interface layer with 10 μm thickness
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Plastic strain distribution in the boundary interface layer with 20 μm thickness
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Four selected elements with highest plastic strain
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Plastic strain distribution in the corner joint
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Equivalent plastic strain history output from Ansys
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Total accumulated equivalent plastic strain history after post processing
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Empirical life model based on damage criterion C1
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Empirical life model based on damage criterion C2
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Empirical life model based on damage criterion C3
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Empirical life model based on damage criterion C4

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