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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Characterization of Lead-Free Solders in Flip Chip Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Wiese, E. Meusel

Dresden University of Technology, Semiconductor & Microsystems Technology Laboratory, TU Dresden, IHM, D-01062 Dresden, Germany

J. Electron. Packag 125(4), 531-538 (Dec 15, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1604155 History: Received November 01, 2002; Online December 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Stromswold, E. I., 1993, “Characterization of Eutectic Tin-Silver Solder Joints,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester.
Vnuk,  F., Ainsley,  M. H., and Smith,  R. W., 1987, “The Solid Solubility of Silver, Gold and Zinc in Metallic Tin,” J. Electron. Mater., 16, pp. 181–186.
Chada,  S., Hermann,  A., Laub,  W., Fournelle,  R., Shangguan,  D., and Achari,  A., 1997, “Microstructural Investigation of Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb-Ag Solder Joints,” Soldering & Surface Mount Technology,26, pp. 9–13.
Moon,  K.-W., Boettinger,  W. J., Kattner,  U. R., Biancaniello,  F. S., and Handwerker,  C. A., 2000, “Experimental and Thermodynamic Assessment of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys,” J. Electron. Mater., 29, pp. 1122–1136.
Felton,  L. E., Rajan,  K., Ficalora,  P. J., and Singh,  P., 1991, “n-Cu6Sn5 Precipitates in Cu/Pb-Sn Solder Joints,” Scr. Metall. Mater., 25, pp. 2329–2333.
Xiao, L., Liu, J., Lai, Z., Ye, L., and Thölen, A., 2000, “Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Bulk Lead Free Solders,” Proc. Int. Symp. on Advanced Packaging Materials, Braselton, Georgia, pp. 145–151.
Pearson,  C. E., 1934, “The Viscous Properties of Extruded Eutectic Alloys of Lead-Tin and Bismuth-Tin,” J. Inst. Met., 54, pp. 111–124.
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Cadek, J., 1988, Creep in Metallic Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Wiese,  S., Feustel,  F., Rzepka,  S., and Meusel,  E., 1998, “Experimental Characterization of Material Properties of 63Sn37Pb Flip Chip Solder Joints,” Electronic Packaging Materials Science X, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., No. 515, San Francisco, , , , , ., eds., Materials Research Society, Warrendale, pp. 233–238.
Vaynman,  S., 1990, “Effect of Temperature on Isothermal Fatigue of Solders,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., 13, pp. 909–913.
Guo,  Z., and Conrad,  H., 1993, “Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in 63Sn37Pb Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 115, pp. 159–164.
Solomon,  H. D., and Tolksdorf,  E. D., 1995, “Energy Approach to the Fatigue of 60/40 Solder: Part I—Influence of Temperature and Cycle Frequency,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 117, pp. 130–135.
Wiese, S., Feustel, F., Rzepka, S., and Meusel, E., 1999, “Creep and Crack Propagation in Flip Chip SnPb37 Solder Joints,” Proceedings IEEE 49th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 1015–1020.
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Wiese, S., 2000, Experimentelle Untersuchungen an SnPb37 Flip-Chip-Lotkontakten zur Bestimmung Werkstoffmechanischer Modelle für die FEM-Simulation, Fortschr.-Ber. VDI Reihe 9 Nr. 325, VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf.
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Figures

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Structure of flip chip bump and joint
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Course of a reversible creep experiment
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Optical micrograph of Sn95.5Ag4Cu0.5 solder (Hereaus F365) in a flip chip and a bulk specimen
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Creep data of Sn96.5Ag3.5 solder and Sn95.5Ag4Cu0.5 solder in flip chip joints
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Back scattered electron images of the Sn63Pb67 solder in a flip chip and a bulk specimen
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Creep data of Sn63Pb37 flip chip solder
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Crack evolution on a SnPb37 flip chip joint (0/75/150/300 cycles, displacement amplitude=5 μm)
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Drop of force amplitude for different isothermal fatigue tests conducted with a displacement amplitude of Δs=1.3 μm and wave periods of T=1, 100, 1000 s
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Comparison of creep data from Sn63Pb37, Sn96.5Ag3.5, and Sn95.5Ag4Cu0.5 solder in flip chip joints for a temperature of T=27°C (the flip chip creep data from T=5°C–50°C was corrected for this temperature)
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Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photograph of a specimen joint and the corresponding FEM calculation
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Crack propagation data from isothermal fatigue experiments on Sn63Pb37 and Sn95.5Ag4Cu0.5 flip chip solder joints correlated to plastic strain energy ΔWpl
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Crack propagation data from isothermal fatigue experiments on Sn63Pb37 and Sn95.5Ag4Cu0.5 flip chip solder joints correlated to accumulated inelastic strain εacc

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