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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Response Surface Modeling for Nonlinear Packaging Stresses

[+] Author and Article Information
W. D. van Driel

Philips Semiconductors, ATO Innovation, P.O. Box 30008, 6534 AE Nijmegen, The Netherlandse-mail: willem.van.driel@philips.com

G. Q. Zhang

Philips CFT, P.O. Box 218, 5600 MD Eindhoven, The Netherlandse-mail: g.q.zhang@philips.com

J. H. J. Janssen

Philips Semiconductors, ATO Innovation, P.O. Box 30008, 6534 AE Nijmegen, The Netherlands

L. J. Ernst

Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5033, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlandse-mail: l.j.ernst@wbmt.tudelft.nl

J. Electron. Packag 125(4), 490-497 (Dec 15, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1604149 History: Received November 01, 2002; Online December 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Zhang, G. Q., 1998, “The State-of-the-Art of Simulation Based Optimization,” Philips Internal Report.
Zhang, G. Q., Ernst, L. J., and de Saint Leger, O., 2000, Benefiting From Thermal and Mechanical Simulation in Micro-Electronics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Zhang, G. Q., Janssen, J. H. J., Ernst, L. J., Bisschop, J., Liang, Z. N., Kuper, F., and Schravendeel, R. L., 2000, “Virtual Thermo-Mechanical Prototyping of Electronic Packaging Using Philips’ Optimization Strategy,” IMAPS2000, USA.
Zhang, G. Q., Tay, A., and Ernst, L. J., 2000, “Virtual Thermo-Mechanical Prototyping of Electronic Packaging—Bottlenecks and Solutions of Damaging Modelling,” 3rd Electronic Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC), Singapore.
Kelly, G., 2000, The Simulation of Thermomechanically Induced Stress in Plastic Encapsulated IC Packages, Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht, The Netherlands).
Madelung, O., 1982, “Physics of Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds,” Landolt-Bǒrnstein New Series, Group III, Vol. 17, Pt. A, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.
Van den Boomen, R., and Seegers, M. C., 1990, “Leadframe Materials,” Philips internal report.
Darveaux, R., and Banerji, K., 1998, “Constitutive Relations for Tin-Based Solder Joints,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., 15 , pp. 1013–1024.
Eischen,  J. W., Chung,  C., and Kim,  J. H., 1990, “Realistic Modeling of Edged Effect Stresses in Bimaterial Elements,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 112, pp. 221–226.
van Driel, W. D., Zhang, G. Q., Janssen, J. H. J., Fei, S., Yi, S., and Ernst, L. J., 2002, “Prediction and Verification of Process-induced Thermal Deformation of Electronic Packages Using Non-linear FEB and 3D Interferometry,” Proceedings of the EuroSimE 2001 Conference, Paris, pp. 362–368.
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van Driel,  W. D., Zhang,  G. Q., Janssen,  J. H. J., Ernst,  L. J., Su,  F., Chian,  K. S., and Yi,  S., 2003, “Prediction and Verification of Process Induced Warpage of Electronic Packages,” Journal of Microelectronics & Reliability 43(5), pp. 765–774.
Conn, A. R., and Toint, Ph. L., 1996, “An Algorithm Using Quadratic Interpolation for Unconstrained Derivative Free Optimization,” in Nonlinear Optimization and Applications, G. di Pillo and F. Giannes (eds.), Plenum Publishing, New York, pp. 27–47.
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Figures

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2D axisymmetric FE model for the package
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Temperature-dependent Young’s modulus and yield stress of the leadframe material
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Temperature-dependent Young’s modulus and CTE for the compound
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Temperature-dependent Young’s modulus and yield stress for the solder die-attach
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Major packaging process specification
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Horizontal stress distribution after die attachment at 25°C
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Horizontal stress distribution after molding at 170°C
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Horizontal stress distribution after temperature cycling at −65°C
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Horizontal stress along the top of the die surface from center to edge for nominal model and model with same length for die-leadframe after die attachment at 25°C
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Von Mises stress distribution in the leadframe after temperature cycling
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Effect of solder die-attach creep during temperature cycling: horizontal stress evolution at the mid-top and mid-bottom of the die
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Deformations at the top of a packed sample from center to edge due to cooldown
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Flow chart of the developed optimization strategy
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Simulated versus predicted stress: quadratic (left) and Kriging model (right)
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Example RSM plot; t_lf refers to leadframe thickness, t_solder to solder die-attach thickness
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3D RSM plot mid bottom die stresses at 25°C after die soldering
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3D RSM plot top mid die stresses after temperature cycling testing at 25°C
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3D RSM plot top mid die stresses after die soldering at 25°C
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Top die horizontal stress as a function of the assembly process for different leadframe thickness
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Bottom die horizontal stress as a function of the assembly process for different leadframe thickness

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