Die Cracking at Solder (In60-Pb40) Joints on Brittle (GaAs) Chips: Fracture Correlation Using Critical Bimaterial Interface Corner Stress Intensities

[+] Author and Article Information
Bingzhi Su, Y. C. Lee, Martin L. Dunn

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309

J. Electron. Packag 125(3), 369-377 (Sep 17, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1602702 History: Received May 01, 2002; Online September 17, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Vidano,  R. P., Paananen,  D. W., Miers,  T. H., Krause,  J., Agricola,  K. R., and Hauser,  R. L., 1987, “Mechanical Stress Reliability Factors for Packaging GaAs MMIC and LSIC Components,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., 12, pp. 612–617.
Brown,  M. D., Singh,  S. B., Malshe,  A. P., Gordon,  M. H., Schmidt,  W. F., and Brown,  W. D., 1999, “Thermal and Mechanical Analysis of High-Power GaAs Flip-Chips on CVD Diamond Substrates,” Diamond Relat. Mater., 8, pp. 1927–1935.
Chen,  W. T., Read,  D., Questad,  D., and Sammakia,  B., 1997, “Opportunities and Needs for Interfacial Fracture Mechanics in Microelectronic Packaging Industry,” Application of Fracture Mechanics in Electronic Packaging, ASME,AMD-222/EEP-20, pp. 183–192.
Hattori,  T., Sakata,  S., Hatsuda,  T., and Murakami,  G., 1989, “A Stress Singularity Parameter Approach for Evaluating the Interfacial Reliability of Plastic Encapsulated LSI Devices,” J. Electron. Packag., 111, pp. 243–248.
Reedy,  E. D., and Guess,  T. R., 1993, “Comparison of Butt Tensile Strength Data With Interface Corner Stress Intensity Factor Prediction,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 30, pp. 2929–2936.
Reedy,  E. D., and Guess,  T. R., 1995, “Butt Tensile Joint Strength: Interface Corner Stress Intensity Factor Prediction,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 9, pp. 237–251.
Reedy,  E. D., and Guess,  T. R., 1996, “Butt Joint Strength: Effects of Residual Stress and Stress Relaxation,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 9, pp. 237–251.
Reedy,  E. D., and Guess,  T. R., 1996, “Interface Corner Stress States: Plasticity Effects,” Int. J. Fract., 81, pp. 269–282.
Reedy, Jr., E. D., and Guess, T. R., 1998, “Interface Corner Failure Analysis of Joint Strength: Effect of Adherent Stiffness,” Int. J. Fract., in press.
Reedy, Jr., E. D., and Guess, T. R., 2001, “Nucleation and Propagation of an Edge Crack in a Uniformly Cooled Epoxy/Glass Bimaterial,” in press.
Reedy,  E. D., 2000, “Connection Between Interface Corner and Interfacial Fracture Analyses of an Adhesively-Bonded Butt Joint,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 37, pp. 2429–2442.
Reedy, E. D., 2001, “Strength of Butt and Sharp-Cornered Joints,” Comprehensive Adhesion Science, in press.
Qian,  Z., and Akisanya,  A. R., 1998, “An Experimental Investigation of Failure Initiation in Bonded Joints,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 46, pp. 4895–4904.
Mohammed,  H., and Liechti,  K. M., 2000, “Cohesive Zone Modeling of Crack Nucleation at Bimaterial Corners,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 48, pp. 735–764.
Dunn,  M. L., Cunningham,  S. J., and Labossiere,  P. E. W., 2000, “Initiation Toughness of Silicon/Glass Anodic Bonds,” Acta Mater., 48, pp. 735–744.
Dunn,  M. L., Suwito,  W., and Cunningham,  S. J., 1997, “Fracture Initiation at Sharp Notches: Correlation Using Critical Stress Intensities,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 34, pp. 3873–3883.
Dunn,  M. L., Suwito,  W., Cunningham,  S. J., and May,  C. W., 1997, “Fracture Initiation at Sharp Notches Under Mode I, Mode II, and Mild Mixed-Mode Loading,” Int. J. Fract., 84, pp. 367–381.
Suwito,  W., Dunn,  M. L., Cunningham,  S. J., and Read,  D. T., 1999, “Elastic Moduli, Strength, and Fracture Initiation at Sharp Notches of Etched Single Crystal Silicon Microstructures,” J. Appl. Phys., 85, pp. 3519–3534.
Williams,  M. L., 1952, “Stress Singularities Resulting from Various Boundary Conditions in Angular Corners of Plates in Extension,” J. Appl. Mech., 19, pp. 526–528.
Bogy,  D. B., and Wang,  K. C., 1971, “Stress Singularities at Interface Corners in Bonded Dissimilar Materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 7, pp. 993–1005.
Hein,  V. L., and Erdogan,  F., 1971, “Stress Singularities in a Two Material Wedge,” Int. J. Fract. Mech., 7, pp. 317–330.
Dempsey,  J. P., and Sinclair,  G. B., 1979, “On the Stress Singularities in the Plane Elasticity of the Composite Wedge,” J. Elast., 9, pp. 373–391.
Dempsey,  J. P., and Sinclair,  G. B., 1981, “On the Singular Behavior at the Vertex of a Bimaterial Wedge,” J. Elast., 11, pp. 317–327.
Kuo,  M. C., and Bogy,  D. B., 1974, “Plane Solutions for Displacement and Traction-Displacement Problems for Anisotropic Elastic Wedges,” J. Appl. Mech., 41, pp. 197–203.
Ting,  T. C. T., and Chou,  S. C., 1981, “Edge Singularities in Anisotropic Composites,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 17, pp. 1057–1068.
Pageau,  S. S., Joseph,  P. F., and Biggers,  S. B., 1995, “Finite Element Analysis of Anisotropic Materials With Singular In-Plane Stress Fields,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 32, pp. 571–591.
Szabo,  B., and Yosibash,  Z., 1996, “Numerical Analysis of Singularities in Two-Dimensions Part 2: Computation of Generalized Flux/Stress Intensity Factors,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 39, pp. 409–434.
Ting, T. C. T., 1996, Anisotropic Elasticity: Theory and Applications, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Ting, T. C. T., 1998, “Stress Singularities at the Tip of Interfaces in Polycrystals,” in Damage and Failure of Interfaces, Rossmanith (ed.), Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 75–82.
Carpenter,  W. C., 1984, “A Collocation Procedure for Determining Fracture Mechanics Parameters at a Corner,” Int. J. Fract., 24, pp. 255–266.
Sinclair,  G. B., Okajima,  M., and Griffen,  J. H., 1984, “Path Independent Integrals for Computing Stress Intensity Factors at Sharp Notches in Elastic Plates,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 20, pp. 999–1008.
Carpenter,  W. C., and Byers,  C., 1987, “A Path Independent Integral for Computing Stress Intensities for V-Notched Cracks in a Bi-Material,” Int. J. Fract., 35, pp. 245–268.
Munz,  D., and Yang,  Y. Y., 1993, “Stresses Near the Edge of Bonded Dissimilar Materials Described by Two Stress Intensity Factors,” Int. J. Fract., 60, pp. 169–177.
Munz,  D., Fett,  T., and Yang,  Y. Y., 1993, “The Regular Stress Term in Bonded Dissimilar Materials After a Change in Temperature,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 44, pp. 185–194.
Akisanya,  A. R., and Fleck,  N. A., 1997, “Interfacial Cracking From the Free-Edge of a Long Bi-Material Strip,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 34, pp. 1645–1665.
Labossiere,  P. E. W., and Dunn,  M. L., 1999, “Stress Intensities at Interface Corners in Anisotropic Bimaterials,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 62, pp. 555–575.
Im,  S., and Kim,  K.-S., 2001, “An Application of Two-State M-Integral for Computing the Intensity of the Singular Near-Tip Field for a Generic Wedge,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 48, pp. 129–151.
Hui,  C. Y., and Ruina,  A., 1995, “Why K? Higher Order Singularities and Small Scale Yielding,” Int. J. Fract., 72, pp. 97–120.
Dunn,  M. L., Hui,  C. Y., Labossiere,  P. E. W., and Lin,  Y. Y., 2001, “Small Scale Geometric and Material Features at Geometric Discontinuities and Their Role in Fracture Analysis,” Int. J. Fract., 110, pp. 101–121.
Liu,  X. H., Suo,  Z., and Ma,  Q., 1998, “Split Singularities: Stress Field Near the Edge of a Silicon Die on a Polymer Substrate,” Acta Mater., 47, pp. 67–76.
Yang,  Y. Y., and Munz,  D., 1995, “Stress Intensity Factor and Stress Distribution in a Joint With an Interface Corner Under Thermal and Mechanical Loading,” Comput. Struct., 57, pp. 461–476.
Genestedt,  J. L., and Hallstrom,  S., 1997, “Crack Initiation From Homogeneous and Bimaterial Corners,” J. Appl. Mech., 64, pp. 811–818.
Joseph,  P. F., and Zhang,  N., 1998, “Multiple Root Solutions, Wedge Paradoxes and Singular Stress States That are not Variable-Separable,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 58, pp. 1839–1859.
Yang,  Y. Y., and Munz,  D., 1997, “Stress Intensity Factor and Stress Distribution in a Joint With an Interface Corner Under Thermal and Mechanical Loading,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 56, pp. 691–710.
Frankle,  M., Munz,  D., and Yang,  Y. Y., 1996, “Stress Singularities in a Bimaterial Joint With Inhomogeneous Temperature Distribution,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 33, pp. 2039–2054.
Glushkov,  E. V., Glushkova,  N. V., Munz,  D., and Yang,  Y. Y., 2000, “Analytical Solution for Bonded Wedges Under Thermal Stresses,” Int. J. Fract., 106, pp. 321–339.
Labossiere, P. E. W., Dunn, M. L., and Cunningham, S. J., 2001, “Application of Bimaterial Interface Corner Failure Mechanics to Silicon/Glass Anodic Bonds,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, in press.
Brakke, K. A., 1994, Surface Evolver Manual, Version 1.94, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN 55454.
Su, B., 2000, “GaAs Die Crack Initiation in Area Array Electronic Packages,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Zak,  A. R., 1972, “Elastic Analysis of Cylindrical Configurations With Stress Singularities,” J. Appl. Mech., 39, pp. 501–506.
Su,  B., Labossiere,  P. E. W., Dunn,  M. L., and Lee,  Y. C., 1999, “Gallium Arsenide/Gold Flip-Chip Connection Stress Fields,” Adv. Electron. Circuit Packag., 26, pp. 2037–2045.
Brantley,  W. A., 1973, “Calculated Elastic Constants for Stress Problems Associated With Semiconductor Devices,” J. Appl. Phys., 44, pp. 534–535.
Dempsey,  J. P., 1995, “Power-Logarithmic Stress Singularities at Bimaterial Corners and Interface Cracks,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 9, pp. 253–265.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematics of (a) a representative flip-chip assembled component and (b) a closeup of a single solder bump on a chip with the relevant geometric variables
Grahic Jump Location
Schematics showing (a) a closeup of the GaAs/solder interface corner; (b) the idealization of the GaAs/gold interface corner by straight edges; and (c) geometry of the general bimaterial interface corner showing coordinate axes
Grahic Jump Location
Stress singularities as a function of the interface corner angle for the In60-Pb40 solder/GaAs bimaterial corner
Grahic Jump Location
Optical micrograph showing a typical cracked GaAs chip (D,ΔT)=(635 μm,−95°C) after the solder bump is etched away
Grahic Jump Location
Map of solder pad diameter (solder volume) versus temperature change. Filled symbols indicate combinations that cracked and open symbols represent uncracked combinations as determined experimentally. The solid line represents the application of the K1n=K1crn fracture initiation criterion K1crn=98 MPa μm0.41. The criterion predicts that combinations above the line will crack, while those below the line will not.
Grahic Jump Location
Elastic stress distribution σθθ (θ=45 deg) in GaAs for the (D,ΔT)=(1016 μm,−85°C) sample. As indicated in the legend, full-field finite element calculations are shown along with combinations of the asymptotic terms in the solution: the K1n field, the K1n+K2n field, the K1n+K0n field, and the K1n+K2n+K0n field.
Grahic Jump Location
Elastic finite element results for σθθ (θ=45 deg) in the GaAs versus distance from the interface corner for two extreme geometry/load pairs that failed: (D,ΔT)=(508 μm,−95°C) and (1016 μm, −75°C)
Grahic Jump Location
Elastic-plastic finite element results for σθθ (θ=45 deg) in the GaAs versus distance from the interface corner for two extreme geometry/load pairs that failed: (D,ΔT)=(508 μm,−95°C) and (1016 μm, −75°C)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In