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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Modeling the Thermal Behavior of Solder Paste Inside Reflow Ovens

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Tavárez, J. E. González

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9045

J. Electron. Packag 125(3), 335-346 (Sep 17, 2003) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1569955 History: Received February 21, 2002; Online September 17, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Hwang, J. S., 1996, Modern Solder Technology for Competitive Electronics Manufacturing. Sec. 7.1. pp. 209, Sec. 8.2.3. pp. 231, The McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY.
Chen, S.-W., C.-C. Lin, and C. C. Chen, 1997, Determination of the melting and solidification characteristics of solders using differential scanning calorimetry. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. Vol. 29A, pp. 1965–1972.
King, C., and T. S. Ong, 1993, Development of a no-clean solder paste. Circuit World. Vol. 19, No. 4. pp. 44–47.
Pérez, H., A. Marrero, and J. E. Gonzalez, 1999, Study of the thermal behavior of PCB’s during reflow in SMT lines. Proceedings of the 5th ASME/JSME Joint Thermal Engineering Conference, San Diego, California, March 15–19.
Manko, H. H., 1986, Soldering Handbook for Printed Circuits and Surface Mounting. The Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, NY. Pp. 182.
Martin, H., D. Brian, S. Whitaker, and H. H. Winter, 1977, Heat and mass transfer between impinging gas jets and solid surfaces. Advances in Heat Transfer, Vol. 13, pp. 1–60.
Pérez, H., 1998, “Study of the Thermal Behavior of a Printed Circuit Board During the Reflow Process Inside a Surface Mount Technology Oven,” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez.
Eftychiou, M. A., T. L. Bergman, and G. Y. Masada, 1992, Thermal effects during infrared solder reflow-Part II. A model of the reflow process. Journal of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 114, pp. 48–54.
Incropera, F. P., and D. P. DeWitt, 1990, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley and Sons, New York.
Sarvar, F., and P. P. Conway, 1998, Effective modeling of the reflow process: Use of a modeling tool for product and process design. IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 21, pp. 126–133.
Waldvogel, J. M., and D. Poulikakos, 1997, Solidification phenomena on picoliter size solder droplet deposition on a composite substrate. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer. Vol. 40, pp. 295–309.
Boltz, R. E., and G. L. Tuve, 1973, CRC Handbook of Tables for Applied Engineering Science, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

Figures

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Schematic of SMT reflow oven
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Schematic of blower, heaters, and heating panel
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Schematic of solder paste pad and test board
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Temperature distributions of heating panels and convective gas
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Experimental solder paste temperature profiles
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Velocity profile from (a) top heating panels, and (b) bottom heating panels
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Numerical model control volume
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Predicted reflow profile coupled with WL% of flux for (a) 0.8467 cm/s, and (b) 0.635 cm/s
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Predicted profiles at various conveyor speeds
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Predicted profiles at various oven settings coupled with WL% of flux
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Predicted reflow profile for the 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag lead-free solder paste
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Predicted reflow profile for the 42Sn/58Bi lead-free solder paste
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Specific heat approximation of FR-4
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Typical temperature profile of a SMT solder paste
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Typical TGA curve provided by Indium Corp.
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Schematic of the experimental facility

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