Investigation of Variable Frequency Microwave Processing for Electronic Packaging Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Patricia F. Mead, Aravind Ramamoorthy, Shapna Pal

CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

J. Electron. Packag 125(2), 294-301 (Jun 10, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1571076 History: Received February 15, 2001; Revised April 08, 2002; Online June 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lau, J., 1996, Flip Chip Technologies, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Lau, J., 1994, Chip on Board Technologies for Multi Chip Modules, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY.
Morris, J., 1998, “New Materials and Processes—Improved Applications,” Advanced Packaging Magazine, Sept.
Pascarella, N. W., and Baldwin, D. F., 1998, “Advanced Encapsulation Processing for Low Cost Electronics Assembly: A Cost Analysis,” Advances in Electronic Packaging EEP19-1, pp. 50–53.
Panchapakesan, B., Mead, P. F., and Fathi, Z., September 1997, “Variable Frequency Microwave Technology: A New Approach to Curing,” Advanced Packaging Magazine, .
Zou, Y., Johson, W., Suhling, J., Jaeger, R., Harris, J., Kromis, C., Ahmad, I., Tudker, D., and Fathi, Z., 1999, “Comparison of Die Level Stresses in Chip-On-Board Packages Processed with Convection and Variable Frequency Microwave Encapsulant Curing,” Proc., SPIE-Society for Optical Engineering: Int. Conference on High Density Packaging and Multichip Modules, v. 3830, Denver, CO, pp. 7–16.
Copson, D., 1962, Microwave Heating: in Freeze Drying Electronic Ovens and Other Applications, Avi Publishing Company, Westpost, CN.
Hamid,  M., 1992, “Basic Principles of Microwave Power Heating,” Heat Transfer Eng., 13(4), pp. 73–84.
Lauf,  R., Bible,  D., Johnson,  A., Everleigh,  C., 1993, “2 to 18 GHz Broadband Microwave Heating Systems,” Microwave J., 36(11), pp. 24–34.
Anderson, B., Ahmad, I., Tucker, D, Goldstein, S., Fathi, Z., Ramamoorthy, A., and Mead, P., March 1998. “Rapid Processing and Properties Evaluation of Flip-Chip Underfills,” Proc., Technical Program NEPCON West ’98 Conference, Anaheim, CA, vol. 3, pp. 1043–51.
Larin, F., 1968, Radiation Effects in Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Ma, T. P., and Dressendorfer, P. V., 1989, Ionizing radiation in MOS devices and circuits, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Messenger, G., and Ash, M., 1992, The Effects of Radiation on Electronic Systems, 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY.
Taylor, E. W., Paxton, A, Schone, H., Comtois, J., Sanchex, A., Michalicek, M., and Inter, J., 1997, “Radiation-induced effects research in emerging photonic technologies: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, GaN Light-emitting diodes, and microelectromechanical devices,” Proc., SPIE—Society for Optical Engineering: Photonics for Space Environments V, Bellingham, WA, v.3124, pp. 9–21.
Khobare,  S. K., 1980, “Effect of γ Radiation on the Low Frrequency (1/f) Noise of Linear IC’s,” Microelectron. Reliab., 20, pp. 529–531.
Dimitrijev,  S., Golubovic,  S., Zupac,  D., Pejovic,  M., and Stojadinovic,  N., 1992 “Analysis of gamma-radiation induced instability mechanisms in CMOS transistors,” Solid-State Electronics, 32(5), pp. 349–353.
Stojadinovic,  N., and Dimitrijev,  S., 1989, “Instabilities in MOS Transistors,” Reliability in Electronics: Selected Proc., Seventh Symposium on Reliability in Electronics (Relectronic ’88), Microelectron. Reliab., 29(3), pp. 371–380.
Stojadinovic,  N., Golubovic,  S., Djoric,  S., and Dimitrijev,  S., 1995, “Analysis of gamma-irradiation induced degradation mechanisms in power VDMOSFETs,” Microelectron. Reliab., 35(3), pp. 587–602.
Gregory,  B., and Shafer,  B. D., 1973, “Latchup in CMOS integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 20, p. 293.
Johnston,  A. H., 1996, “Influence of VLSI technology Evolution on Radiation Induced Latchup in Space Systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 43(2), p. 505.
Troutman, R., 1986, Latchup in CMOS Technology the Problem and Its Cure, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.
Amerasekera, A., and Najm, F., 1997, Failure Mechanisms in Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Golubovic,  S., Pejovic,  M., Dimitrijev,  S., and Stojadinovic,  N., 1992, “UV-radiation annealing of the Electron and X-irradiation damaged CMOS transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 129(2), pp. 569–575.
Srivastava,  S., Srivastava,  G. P., Singh,  B. R., 1980, “Charge build-up in MOS system under ionizing radiation,” Microelectron. Reliab., 20(4), pp. 529–531.
Gorman,  T. J., 1994, “The Effect of Cosmic Rays on the Soft Error Rate of a DRAM at Ground Level,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-41, pp. 553–557.
Amadori,  R., and Simons,  M., 1971, “Microwave-Induced Metallization Damage and Surface Shorts in Semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., 20(3), pp. 196–197.
Chaparala, P., and Suehle, J., 1996, “Characterization of Intrinsic Thin Silicon Dioxide Breakdown Under Static and Dynamic Stress,” Proc., SPIE—Society for Optical Engineering: Microelectronics Manufacturing, Yield, Reliability, and Failure Analysis II, Austin, TX, vol. 2874, pp. 114–124.
McAteer. O. J., 1990, Electrostatic Discharge Control, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Mead,  P. F., Pal,  S., Ramamoorthy,  A., Fathi,  Z., and Ahmad,  I., 2003, “Variable Frequency Microwave Processing of Underfill Encapsulant for Flip-Chip Applications,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 125(2), pp. X–X.
Ramamoorthy, A., Mead, P. F. 1999, “Investigation of variable frequency microwaves for cure of flip chip underfills,” Proceedings of InterPACK ’99: Pacific RIM/ASME International Intersociety Electronics Photonic Packaging Conference’ Advances in Electronic Packaging 1999, Maui, Hawaii, ASME EEP-26(2), pp. 1569–1572.
Burgess, J. F., and Yerman, A. J., 1986, “Accelerated corrosion testing pressure cooker at 130 degrees C,” Proc., 36th Electronic Components Conference, Seattle, pp. 119–126.
Fathi, Z., Tucker, D., Ahmad, I., Yaeger, E., Konarski, L., Crane, L., and Heaton, J. 1997. “Innovative curing of High Reliability Advanced Polymeric Encapsulants,” Proc., Technical Program. NEPCON West ’98. Conference, Anaheim, CA, vol. 3, pp. 1084–93.
Lau,  J., Schneider,  E., and Baker,  T., 1996, “Shock and Vibration of Solder bumped Flip Chip on Organic Coated Boards,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 118(2), pp. 101–104.
Prasad, R., 1997, Surface Mount Technology, Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition, International Thomson Publishing, New York, NY.


Grahic Jump Location
ESEM Image of failed static RAM IC following VFM radiation
Grahic Jump Location
Photocurrent (lph) plots, pre and post-VFM processing (♦ pre-VFM; ▪ post-VFM)
Grahic Jump Location
CTR plots, pre and post-VFM processing (▪ post VFM; ♦ pre VFM)
Grahic Jump Location
Optical microscope picture of failed device




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In