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ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL PAPERS

Choosing Working Fluid for Two-Phase Thermosyphon Systems for Cooling of Electronics

[+] Author and Article Information
Björn Palm, Rahmatollah Khodabandeh

Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

J. Electron. Packag 125(2), 276-281 (Jun 10, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1571570 History: Received February 26, 2000; Revised May 17, 2002; Online June 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Palm, B., and Tengblad, N., 1996, “Cooling of Electronics by Heat Pipes and Thermosyphons—A Review of Methods and Possibilities,” presented at the National Heat Transfer Conference, Houston, TX, ASME HTD-Vol. 329, Vol. 7, pp. 97–108.
Kishimoto,  T., 1994, “Flexible-Heat-Pipe Cooling for High-Power Devices,” Int. J. Microcircuits Electron. Packag., 17(2), pp. 98–107.
Gromoll, B., 1993, “Application and Performance of Si-Microcooling System for Electronic Devices,” Proc., Eurotherm Seminar No. 29, Thermal Management of Electronic Systems, pp. 13-1–13-10.
Gromoll, B., 1994, “Advanced Micro Air Cooling Systems for High Density Packaging,” Proc., 10th IEEE Semi-Therm Conference, pp. 53–58.
Kuwahara, H. et al., 1994, “Enhancement of Two-Phase Thermosyphon for Cooling High Heat Flux Power Devices,” Proc., I-Therm IV (InterSociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena in Electronic Systems), Washington, DC, pp. 184–189.
Kishimoto, T., and Harada, A., 1992, “Two-Phase Thermosyphon Cooling for Telecom Multichip Modules”, in Advances in Electronic Packaging, Proc., Joint ASME/JSME Conf. on Electronic Packaging, Milpitas, pp. 135–141.
Tengblad, N., and Palm, B., 1995, “Flow Boiling and Film Condensation Heat Transfer in Narrow Channels of Thermosiphons for Cooling of Electronic Components,” Proc., Eurotherm Seminar No. 45, Leuven, Belgium.
Tengblad, N., and Palm, B., 1996, “External Two-Phase Thermosiphons for Cooling of Electronic Components,” Int. J. Microcircuits Electron. Packag., 19 (1).
Khodabandeh,  R., and Palm,  B., 2002, “An Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Threaded Surface on the Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients in Vertical Narrow Channels,” Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 6(2), pp. 131–139.
Khodabandeh,  R., and Palm,  B., 2002, “An Experimental Investigation of the Influence of System Pressure on the Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Closed Two-Phase Thermosyphon Loop,” Int. J. Thermal Sciences, 41, pp. 619–624.
Incropera, F. P., 1990, “Liquid Immersion Cooling of Electronic Components,” Heat Transfer in Electronic and Microelectronic Equipment, ed., A. E. Bergles, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., pp. 407–444.
Nakayama, W., and Bergles, A. E., 1990, “Cooling of Electronic Equipment: Past Present and Future,” Heat Transfer in Electronic and Microelectronic Equipment, ed., A. E. Bergles, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., pp. 3–39.
Bergles, A. E., and Bar-Cohen, A., 1990, “Direct Liquid Cooling of Microelectronic Components,” Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 233–342.
Bar-Cohen,  A., 1993, “Thermal Management of Electronic Components with Dielectric Liquids,” Int. J. JSME, Ser. B, 36(1), pp. 1–25.
Gorenflo, D., 1993, “Pool Boiling,” VDI Heat Atlas, VDI-Verlag GmbH, Dusseldorf, Germany, pp. Ha1–13.
Cooper, M. G., 1984, “Saturation Nucleate Pool Boiling. A Simple Correlation,” Proc., 1st National Conference on Heat Transfer, Vol. 2, pp. 785–793 (I. Chem. E. Symp. Ser. No. 86).
Guglielmini, G., Misale, M., and Schenone, C., 1993, “Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Dielectric Fluids for Immersion Electronic Cooling: Effects of Pressure,” Proc, Eurotherm Seminar No. 29, Thermal Management of Electronic Systems, pp. 15-1–15-10.
Köberle, K., and Auracher, H., 1993, “Temperature Controlled Measurements of the Critical Heat Flux on Microelectronic Heat Sources in Natural Convection and Jet Impingement Cooling,” Proc., Eurotherm Seminar No. 29, Thermal Management of Electronic Systems, pp. 14-1–14-10.
Lienhard, J. H., and Dhir, V. K., 1973, “Extended Hydrodynamic Theory of the Peak and Minimum Pool Boiling Heat Fluxes,” Report CR-2270, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington DC.
Lienhard,  J. H., and Dihr,  V. K., 1973, “Peak Boiling Heat Flux from Finite Bodies,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 95, p. 152.
Hewitt, G. F., Shires, G. L., and Bott, T. R., 1994, Process Heat Transfer, CRC Press/Begell House, ISBN 0-8493-9918-1.
Klein, S. A., and Alvarado, F. L., 1998, Engineering Equation Solver, Ver. 5.2, F-Chart Software, www.fChart.com.
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Lockhart,  R. W., and Martinelli,  R. C., 1949, “Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase Two-Component Flow in Pipes,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 45(1), 39–48.
Collier, J. G., 1972, Convective Boiling and Condensation, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill.
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Figures

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Heat transfer coefficients according to Cooper’s pool boiling correlation versus saturation temperature for different fluids
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Critical heat flux of different fluids according to Lienhard and Dhir correlation 45
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Schematic drawing of simulated system
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Pressure drop in simulated system with 3 mm i.d. riser and downcomer and isobutane as refrigerant
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Vapor fraction in the riser vs. heat load for different fluids with 3 mm i.d. in riser and downcomer
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Product of heat of vaporization and density versus saturation pressure
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Figure of merit for one-phase vapor flow pressure drop as a function of saturation pressure
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Figure of merit for one-phase vapor pressure drop as a function of saturation temperature
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Boiling heat transfer coefficients according to Cooper 3 and Gorenflo 2 versus reduced pressure for two fluids with different molecular weight

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