Bejan, A., 2000, *Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Yovanovich, M. M., 1987, “On the Effect of Shape, Aspect Ratio and Orientation upon Natural Convection from Isothermal Bodies of Complex Shape,” ASME HTD-Vol. 82, pp. 121–129.

Yovanovich, M. M., 1988, “General Expression for Forced Convection Heat and Mass Transfer from Isopotential Spheroids,” AIAA Paper 88-0743, 26th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, January 11–14.

Refai Ahmed, G., and Yovanovich, M. M., 1994, “Approximate Solution of Forced Convection Heat Transfer from Isothermal Simple Body Shapes,” AIAA Paper 94-1971, 6th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics Heat Transfer Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, June 20–23.

Peterson,
G. P., and Ortega,
A., 1990, “Thermal Control of Electronic Equipment and Devices,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 20, pp. 181–314.

Moffat, R. J., and Ortega, A., 1988, “Direct Air Cooling of Electronic Components,” *Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems*, Vol. 1, eds., A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, Hemisphere, New York, pp. 129–282.

Nakayama, W., Matsushima, H., and Goel, P., 1988, “Forced Convective Heat Transfer from Arrays of Finned Packages,” *Cooling Technology for Electronic Equipment*, ed., W. Aung, Hemisphere, New York, pp. 195–210.

Matsushima,
H., Yanagida,
T., and Kondo,
Y., 1992, “Algorithm for Predicting the Thermal Resistance of Finned LSI Packages Mounted on a Circuit Board,” Heat Transfer-Jpn. Res., 21, pp. 504–517.

Li,
W., Kakac,
S., Hatay,
F. F., and Oskay,
R., 1993, “Experimental Study of Unsteady Forced Convection in a Duct with and without Arrays of Block-Like Electronic Components,” Waerme- Stoffuebertrag., 28, pp. 69–79.

Kim, S. J., and Lee, S. W., eds., 1996, *Air Cooling Technology for Electronic Equipment*, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Anand,
N. K., Kim,
S. H., and Fletcher,
L. S., 1992, “The Effect of Plate Spacing on Free Convection between Heated Parallel Plates,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 114, pp. 515–518.

Kim,
S. H., and Anand,
N. K., 1994, “Laminar Developing Flow and Heat Transfer between a Series of Parallel Plates with Surface Mounted Discrete Heat Sources,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 37, pp. 2231–2244.

Kim,
S. H., and Anand,
N. K., 1994, “Turbulent Heat Transfer between a Series of Parallel Plates with Surface-Mounted Discrete Heat Sources,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116, pp. 577–587.

Bejan, A., 1984, *Convection Heat Transfer*, Wiley, New York, p. 157, problem 11.

Bar Cohen,
A., and Rohsenow,
W. M., 1984, “Thermally Optimum Spacing of Vertical, Natural Convection Cooled, Parallel Plates,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 106, pp. 116–123.

Ledezma,
G. A., and Bejan,
A., 1997, “Optimal Geometric Arrangement of Staggered Vertical Plates in Natural Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 119, pp. 700–708.

Bejan,
A., Fowler,
A. J., and Stanescu,
G., 1995, “The Optimal Spacing between Horizontal Cylinders in a Fixed Volume Cooled by Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 38, pp. 2047–2055.

Bejan,
A., and Sciubba,
E., 1992, “The Optimal Spacing of Parallel Plates Cooled by Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 35, pp. 3259–3264.

Mereu,
S., Sciubba,
E., and Bejan,
A., 1993, “The Optimal Cooling of a Stack of Heat Generating Boards with Fixed Pressure Drop, Flow Rate or Pumping Power,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 36, pp. 3677–3686.

Petrescu,
S., 1994, “Comments on the Optimal Spacing of Parallel Plates Cooled by Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 37, p. 1283.

Bhattacharjee, S., and Grosshandler, W. L., 1988, “The Formation of a Wall Jet Near a High Temperature Wall under Microgravity Environment,” ASME HTD-Vol. 96, pp. 711–716.

Fowler,
A. J., Ledezma,
G. A., and Bejan,
A., 1997, “Optimal Geometric Arrangement of Staggered Plates in Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 40, pp. 1795–1805.

Bejan,
A., 1995, “The Optimal Spacings for Cylinders in Crossflow Forced Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117, pp. 767–770.

Stanescu,
G., Fowler,
A. J., and Bejan,
A., 1996, “The Optimal Spacing of Cylinders in Free-Stream Cross-Flow Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 39, pp. 311–317.

Ledezma,
G., Morega,
A. M., and Bejan,
A., 1996, “Optimal Spacing between Pin Fins with Impinging Flow,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 570–577.

Blasius,
H., 1908, “Grenzschichten in Flüssigkeiten mit Kleiner Reibung Z.,” Math. Phys., 56, p. 1; also NACA TM 1256.

Pohlhausen,
E., 1921, “Der Wärmeaustausch Zwischen Festen Körpern und Flüssigkeiten Mit Kleiner Reibung und Kleiner Wärmeleitung,” Z. Angew. Math. Mech., 1, pp. 115–121.

Chatwin,
P. C., 1975, “On the Longitudinal Dispersion of Passive Contaminant in Oscillatory Flows in Tubes,” J. Fluid Mech., 71, pp. 513–527.

Watson,
E. J., 1983, “Diffusion in Oscillatory Pipe Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 133, pp. 233–244.

Kurzweg,
U. H., and Zhao,
L. D., 1984, “Heat Transfer by High-Frequency Oscillations: a New Hydrodynamic Technique for Achieving Large Effective Thermal Conductivities,” Phys. Fluids, 27, pp. 2624–2627.

Kurzweg,
U. H., 1985, “Enhanced Heat Conduction in Oscillating Viscous Flows within Parallel-Plate Channels,” J. Fluid Mech., 156, pp. 291–300.

Rocha,
L. A. O., and Bejan,
A., 2001, “Geometric Optimization of Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer in a Volume Cooled by Parallel Tubes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123, pp. 233–239.

Bejan, A., 1993, *Heat Transfer*, Wiley, New York.

Heinrich,
B., 1981, “The Mechanisms and Energetics of Honeybee Swarm Temperature Regulation,” J. Exp. Biol., 91, pp. 25–55.

Basak,
T., Rao,
K. K., and Bejan,
A., 1996, “A Model for Heat Transfer in a Honey Bee Swarm,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 51, pp. 387–400.

Bejan,
A., Ikegami,
Y., and Ledezma,
G. A., 1998, “Theory of Natural Crack Pattern Formation for Fastest Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 41, pp. 1945–1954.