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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Thermal Interfacing Techniques for Electronic Equipment—A Perspective

[+] Author and Article Information
Wataru Nakayama, Arthur E. Bergles

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

J. Electron. Packag 125(2), 192-199 (Jun 10, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1568127 History: Received June 19, 2001; Online June 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Nakayama, W., and Bergles, A. E., 1990, “Cooling Electronic Equipment; Past, Present, and Future”, Heat Transfer in Electronic and Microelectronic Equipment, ed., A. E. Bergles, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, pp. 3–39.
Kaplan,  G., 1999, “Industrial Electronics,” IEEE Spectrum, 36(1), pp. 68–72.
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Chu,  R. C., Hwang,  U. P., and Simons,  R. E., 1982, “Conduction Cooling for an LSI Package: A One-Dimensional Approach,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 26(1), pp. 45–54.
Yovanovich, M. M., and Antonetti, V. W., 1988, “Application of Thermal Contact Resistance Theory to Electronic Packages,” Chap. 2, Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems, Vol. 1, eds., A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, pp. 79–128.
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Bergles, A. E., and Bar-Cohen, A., 1994, “Immersion Cooling of Digital Computers,” Cooling of Electronic Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 539–621.
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Figures

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Examples containing typical morphologies of thermal interfaces—(a) air-cooled thyristor unit (from Kaplan 2); (b) thermal conduction module (Nakayama and Bergles 1); and (c) ball grid array package with a heat spreader
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Typical setup to measure thermal contact resistance
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Thermal conductance versus contact pressure: the results of case study for a water-cooled power device. hc=contact conductance for silicon/copper contact derived from Yovanovich correlation (Eq. (1)). hcnv=heat transfer coefficient on the channel wall (2m/s water flow in a 1 cm hydraulic diameter channel). ht=conductance for heat flow across a 2-mm-thick copper wall.
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Exploded view of a portable computer
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Heat spreader and warped heat source—(a) convex warping of heat source, and (b) concave warping of heat source
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Thermal resistance versus heat spreader thickness: the results of computations for the cases of Figs. 5(a) and (b). The heat source radius is 1 cm. The heat spreader is made from copper and has a 3-cm radius. The maximum warp gap is 200 μm. The gap is filled with a material having a thermal conductivity 1 W/m K. The heat flow originates from the heat source and ends at the peripheral edge of the spreader. Rc=contact resistance computed from Eq. (9). R1D=contact resistance in one-dimensional heat flow.

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