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ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL PAPERS

Study of Mechanical Behavior of Compliant Micro-Springs for Next Generation Probing Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Mudasir Ahmad, Suresh K. Sitaraman

Computer-Aided Simulation of Packaging Reliability (CASPaR) Laboratory, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405

J. Electron. Packag 124(4), 411-418 (Dec 12, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1512296 History: Received December 03, 2001; Online December 12, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Topics: Stress , Springs , Force , Bonding
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References

The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors: Assembly and Packaging. Semiconductor Industry Association, 2001, p. 40.
Tummala, R. R., E. J. Rymaszewski, and A. G. Klopfenstein, 1997, Microelectronics Packaging Handbook, Semiconductor Packaging, Part II, Second Edition. Chapman & Hall, pp. II 814–II 872.
Haemer, J. M., S. K. Sitaraman, D. K. Fork, F. C. Chong, S. Mok, D. L. Smith, and F. Swiatowiec, 2000, “Flexible micro spring interconnects for high performance probing,” Proc., 50th Electronics Components and Technology Conference (ECTC). May, pp. 1157–1163.
Smith D. L., and A. S. Alimonda, 1996, “A New Flip-Chip Technology for High Density Packaging,” Proc., 46th Electronics Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Orlando, FL, May pp. 1069–1073.
Smith, D. L., D. K. Fork, R. L. Thornton, A. S. Alimonda, C. L. Chua, C. Dunnrowicz, and J. Ho, 1998, “Flip-Chip Bonding on 6-μm Pitch using Thin-Film Microspring Technology,” Proc. 48th Electronics Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Seattle, WA, May, pp. 325–329.
Fischer-Cripps, A. C., 2000, Introduction to Contact Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering Series, Springer Verlag New York (Berlin, Germany), pp. 166–167, 177–215.
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge), pp. 233–239.
Childs,  T. H. C., 1970, “The Sliding of Rigid Cones over Metals in High Adhesion Conditions,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 12, pp. 393–403.
Ahmad, M., and S. K. Sitaraman, 2001, “Coupled Thermal Electric Modeling of Felixible Micro-Spring Interconnects for High Performance Probing,” Proc., 51st Electronics Components and Technology Conference (ECTC).
Slade, P. G., 1999, Electrical Contact, Principles and Applications, Cutler-Hammer Horseheads (New York), pp. 2–20.

Figures

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Schematic of micro-spring for probing 3
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Finite element model of a spring, a substrate, and a bonding pad
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Finite element model illustrating boundary conditions
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Variation of vertical probing force with compression for springs with different lift heights
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Variation of vertical probing force with compression for springs with different taper angles
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Variation of vertical probing force with sliding distance for springs with different taper angles
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Typical scrub mark obtained from finite element models (pad dimensions 70×20 μm)
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Focused ion beam image of the experimental scrub mark. The scrub length measured was ∼47 μm, that from FEA revealed 50.355 μm.
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Elastic and plastic strains versus compression for springs with different taper angles from FEA
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Penetration depth versus compression for springs with different taper angles from FEA
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(a) A Q-slice of the penetration depth, showing the variation along the pad; (b) cross section of the pad, showing the deformation formed by the pointed spring tip; (c) sectional view, showing a clearer view of the penetration depth along the pad
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(a) Shape of indenting volume of contact, (b) shape of indenting volume of contact
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Tip angle versus indentation depth obtained analytically and from FEM
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Focused ion beam images of the cross section of a typical probe mark—(a) low resolution; (b) high resolution. The indentation depth was measured to be about 0.25 μm.
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Warpage of a spring tip with a 45-deg taper angle
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Variation of tip stress with compression for springs with different taper angles
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Variation of spring base stress with compression for springs with different taper angles
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Probing force versus constriction resistance

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