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ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL PAPERS

An Analytical Cure Model for Underfill Epoxies

[+] Author and Article Information
R. L. Mahajan, C. P. Malhotra, R. K. Sharma

Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Packaging of Microwave, Optical and Digital Electronics (CAMPmode), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0427

J. Electron. Packag 124(4), 391-396 (Dec 12, 2002) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1510864 History: Received April 01, 2001; Revised April 20, 2002; Online December 12, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Suryanarayana,  D., Hsiao,  R., Gall,  T. P., and McCreary,  J. M., 1991, “Enhancement of Flip-Chip Fatigue Life by Encapsulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., 14(1), pp. 218–223.
Shi, D. M., and Carbin, J. W., 1996,“Advances in Flip-Chip Underfill Flow and Cure Rates and their Enhancement of Manufacturing Processes and Component Reliability,” IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference.
Wun, K. B. and Margaritis, G., 1996, “The Evaluation of Fast-Flow, Fast-Cure Underfills for Flip Chip on Organic Substrates,” IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference.
Bonneau, M. and Stewart, J., 1997, “Reduced Cycle Time Epoxies for Flip Chip Underfill,” Int. Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials.
Ghoshal,  R., Sambasivam,  M., and Mukerji,  P. K., 1997, “Novel Epoxy-Based Compositions for Microelectronic Packaging Applications,” Microelectron. Int., 14 (3), pp. 12–14, 18.
Merton,  M. M., Malhotra,  C. P., Nikmanesh,  N., and Mahajan,  R. L., Dec1999, “Alternative Curing Methods for FCOB Underfill,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 121(4), pp. 249–254.
Aung, W., 1973, “Calculation of Resin Temperature and Resin Flow Rate during Multilayer Board Lamination,” Int. Electronic Packaging and Production Conf., INTERNEPCON EUROPE, Brussels.
Prime,  R. B., 1973, “Differential Scanning Calorimetry of the Epoxy Cure Reaction,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 13, pp. 365–371.
Springer, G. S., 1982, “A Model of the Curing Process of Epoxy Matrix Composites,” Progress in Science and Engineering of Composites, Japan Society for Composite Materials, pp. 23–35.
Lee,  W. L., Loos,  A. C., and Springer,  G. S., 1982, “Heat of Reaction, Degree of Cure and Viscosity of Hercules 3501-6 Resin,” J. Compos. Mater., 16, pp. 510–520.
Hou,  T. H., and Bai,  J. M., 1988, “A Semi-empirical approach for the chemiviscosity modeling of Reactive Resin System,” SAMPE Q., 24(6), pp. 43–51.
Turi, E. A., 1997, Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Incropera, F. P. and De Witt, D. P., 1990, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Mahajan,  R. L., Chu,  T. Y., and Dickinson,  D. A., 1991, “An Experimental Study of Laminar Film Condensation with Stefan number greater than unity,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113, pp. 472–477.
Beyer, W. H., 1991, CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulas, 29th Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. 259.

Figures

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Isothermal cure curves for Hysol FP4511
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Plot of isothermal values of −ln(1−α) versus time t (for first order reaction kinetics)
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Plot of isothermal values of 1/(1−α)−1 versus time t (for second order reaction kinetics)
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Schematic of FCOB sample
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Plot of temperature versus time for the part from finite element analysis and from Eq. (10)
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Cure versus time curves for a typical PCB with an FCOB sample for different values of h(Ti=25°C,T=165°C)
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Time to reach 99% cure versus h(T=165°C). Numerical values and fit to Eq. (18).
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Heat transfer coefficient as coupon is heated from room temperature to the temperature of the heating fluid
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Sketch showing dimensions of the copper coupon and sample pan
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Typical Reaction Exotherm of Hysol FP4511
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Comparison between analytical and experimental values of cure versus time for liquid immersion and hot-air oven heating

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