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TECHNICAL BRIEFS

An Investigation of Intermetallics Formation Between Pd/Ag Metallization and Sn/Pb/Ag Solder

[+] Author and Article Information
G. Y. Li, Y. C. Chan

Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong

J. Electron. Packag 124(3), 305-310 (Jul 26, 2002) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1486012 History: Received August 03, 1998; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Wang,  Sea Fue, Dougherty,  Joseph P., Huebner,  Wayne, and Pepin,  John G., 1994, “Silver-Palladium Thick-Film Conductors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 77(12), pp. 3051–72.
Klein,  J. and Wassink,  R. J., 1987, “Notes on the Effects of Metallisation of Leadless Components on Soldering,” Hybrid Circuits , 13, pp. 9–12.
Chiou,  Bi-Shiou, Liu,  K. C., Duh,  Jenq-Gong, and Palanisamy,  P. Samy, 1991, “Temperature Cycling Effects Between Sn/Pb Solder and Thick Film Pd/Ag/ Conductor Metallization,” IEEE Trans. on CHMT,14(1), pp. 233–237.
Shangguan,  D., Achari,  A., and Green,  W., 1994, “Application of Lead-Free Eutectic SnAg Solder in No-Clean Thick Film Electronic Modules,” IEEE Transactions on CPMT Part B-Advanced Packaging,17(4), pp. 603–611.
Li,  G. Y., and Chan,  Y. C., 1998, “Aging Effects on Shear Fatigue Life and Shear Strength of Soldered Thick Film Joints,” IEEE Trans. on CPMT Part B-Advanced Packaging,21(4), pp. 398–406.
Lau, John H., 1991, Solder Joint Reliability-Theory and Application, Van Nostrand Reinhold New York.
Marshall, James L., Foster, L. Ann, and Sees, Jennifer A., 1994, Interface and Intermetallics, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 42.
Li,  G. Y., and Chan,  Y. C., 1999, “Diffusion and Intermetallics Formation between Pd/Ag Metallization and Sn/Pb/Ag Solder in Surface Mount Solder Joints,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B, No.2, pp. 116–126.
Muckett,  S. J., Warwick,  M. E., and Davis,  P. E., 1986, “Thermal Aging Effects Between Thick Film Metallizations and Reflowed Solder Creams,” Plat. Surf. Finish, 73(1), pp. 44–50.
Morrow, J. D., 1964, “Cyclic Plastic Strain Energy and Fatigue of Metals,” ASTM STP 378, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 45–78.
Brandes, E. A., and Brook, G. B., 1992, Smithells Metals Reference Book, Butterworth Heinemann Ltd.
Wassink, R., and Klein, J., 1989, Soldering in Electronics, Electrochemical Publications Limited, England.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Cross section of a soldered component on a ceramic substrate after aging at 150°C for 32 days. Lower dark region: alumina ceramic substrate. Upper dark region: component. Between substrate and component is the solder joint after thinning.
Grahic Jump Location
TEM micrograph of point (A) marked in Fig. 1
Grahic Jump Location
EDX spectra of selected areas (a), (b), (c), and (d) marked in Fig. 2. (a) Ag-Sn and Pd-Sn intermetallics; (b) γ-Ag3Sn; (c) Sn-rich phase; (d) Ag-Sn and Pd-Sn intermetallics
Grahic Jump Location
TEM micrograph of point (B) marked in Fig. 1
Grahic Jump Location
EDX spectra of selected areas (a), (b), (c), and (d) marked in Fig. 4. (a) PdSn2; (b) PdSn4; (c) Ag-Sn and Pd-Sn intermetallics; (d) Sn-rich phase
Grahic Jump Location
TEM micrograph of point (C) marked in Fig. 1
Grahic Jump Location
EDX spectra of selected areas (a), (b), (c), and (d) marked in Fig. 6. (a) Sn-rich phase; (b) γ -Ag3Sn; (c) Ag-Sn and Pd-Sn intermetallics; (d) Tin-rich phase.
Grahic Jump Location
Identification of metallurgical phases in the thick film solder joint using SAED. (A) TEM micrograph of conductor and solder interface after aging at 150°C for 32 days. (B) Electron diffraction pattern (EDP) of selected area (a), ζ-Ag5Sn; (C) EDP of selected area (b), PbPd3; (D) EDP of selected area (c), Pd2Sn.
Grahic Jump Location
Identification of metallurgical phases in the thick film solder joint using SAED. (A) TEM micrograph of conductor and solder interface after aging at 150°C for 32 days. (B) EDP of selected area (a), Pd2Sn; (C) EDP of selected area (b): γ-Ag3Sn; (D) EDP of selected area (c): Sn-rich phase.
Grahic Jump Location
X-Ray diffraction angular spectra of a cross section of a solder joint after 32 days aging at 150°C
Grahic Jump Location
X-Ray diffraction angular spectra of a crack surface of a solder joint after 32 days aging at 150°C

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