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PAPERS ON RELIABILITY

Reliability Modeling for Ball Grid Array Assembly With a Large Number of Warpage Affected Solder Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. W. Chan, T. H. Ju, Saeed A. Hareb, Y. C. Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309

Jih-Shun Wu

Semi-Custom Design and Manufacturing, Boulder, CO 80309

Mirng-Ji Lii

Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ

J. Electron. Packag 124(3), 246-253 (Jul 26, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1451844 History: Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Heinrich, S. M., 1994, “Prediction of Solder Joint Geometry,” Chapter 5 of Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, Frear et al., eds., Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 158–198.
Heinrich,  S. M., Nigro,  N. J., Elkouh,  A. F., and Lee,  P. S., 1993, “Effect of Chip and Pad Geometry on Solder Joint Formation in SMT,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 115 (4), pp. 433–439.
Patra,  S. K., Sritharan,  S. S., and Lee,  Y. C., 1995, “Minimum-Energy Surface Shape of Solder Joints for Non-circular Pads,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 115, June, pp. 390–397.
Racz, L. M., and Szekely, J., 1993, “An Analysis of the Applicability of Wetting Balance Measurements of Components with Dissimilar Surfaces,” Advances in Electronic Packaging, ASME EEP-Vol. 4-2, pp. 1103–1111.
Brakke, K. A., 1994, Surface Evolver Manual, version 1.94, University of Minnesota, Geometry Center.
Lin,  W., Patra,  S. K., and Lee,  Y. C., 1995, “Design of Solder Joints for Self-aligned Optoelectronic Assemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A, Aug., pp. 543–551.
Lau, J. H., 1992, “Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction of Encapsulated Flip Chip Solder Joints for Surface Laminar Circuit Packaging,” ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Nov., Anaheim, CA.
Jahsman, W. E., Lii, M. J., and Renfro, T. A., 1993, “Dependence of Solder Joint Reliability on Lead Displacement Amplitude and Frequency,” ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Nov., New Orleans, LA.
McKeown, S. A., 1993, “Solder Life Prediction of Leadless and Leaded Surface Mount Components under Thermal Cycling and Vibration,” EEP-Vol. 4-2, ASME Advances in Electronic Packaging, pp. 987–994.
Barker, D. B., Gupta, V. K., and Cluff, K., 1993, “Solder Joint Crack Initiation and Crack Propagation in a TSOP using Strain Energy Partitioning,” EEP-Vol. 4-2, ASME Advances in Electronic Packaging, pp. 943–949.
Borgessen, P., Li, C. Y., and Conway, H. D., 1992, “Analytical Estimates of Thermally Induced Stresses and Strains in Flip-Chip Solder Joints,” Advances in Electronic Packaging, pp. 845–854.
Nagarajand, B., and Mahalingam, M., 1993, “Package-to-Board Attachment Reliability—Methodology and Case Study on OMPAC Package,” EEP-Vol. 4-1, ASME Advances in Electronic Packaging, pp. 537–543.
Corbin,  J. S., 1993, “Finite Element Analysis for Solder Ball Connect (SBC) Structural Design Optimization,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 37, No. 5, Sept., pp. 585–596.
Pao,  Y. H., 1992, “A Fracture Mechanics Approach to Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction of Solder Joints,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., 15, No. 4, Aug., pp. 559–570.
Darveaux, R., Banerji, K., Mawer, A., and Dody, G., 1994, “Reliability of Plastic Ball Grid Array Assembly,” Chapter 13 in Ball Grid Array Technology, J. H. Lau, ed., McGraw-Hill, pp. 379–439.
Ju, T. H., Chan, Y. W., Hareb, S. A., and Lee, Y. C., 1995, “An Integrated Model for Ball Grid Array Solder Joint Reliability,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, San Francisco, Nov. 12–17, pp. 83–89.
Chan, Yiu-Wai Andy, 1995, “An Integrated Model for Ball Grid Array/flip-chip Solder Joints Reliability,” M.S. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

Figures

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Configurations of cavity-up and -down PBGAs
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Quarter view of solder pads of the PBGAs studied
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Representation of combined warpage of package and PCB
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Macro/micro stress/strain modeling
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Shear forces-vs.-shear displacements for the equivalent beams and micro models
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Shear deformations of solder joints of the 72 I/O PBGA assembly at 125°C
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Effect of chip size on solder joint fatigue life
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Shapes of solder joints A and D under a bowl-type warpage
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Shapes of solder joints A and D under an arch-type warpage
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Macro model of the 540-I/O Assembly
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Effect of package substrate thickness on solder joint fatigue life

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